BIODEVICES 2009 Abstracts


Full Papers
Paper Nr: 7
Title:

LABEL FREE BIO SENSING METHOD USING RADIO FREQUENCIES SPECTROSCOPY FOR CELL DETECTION AND DISCRIMINATION

Authors:

Arnaud Pothier, Claire Dalmay, Fabrice Lalloue, Marie-Odile Jauberteau and Pierre Blondy

Abstract: This paper presents an original label free bio sensing method allowing the study of electrical properties of human cells and so potentially cell identification and discrimination. The proposed bio sensor is based on a planar resonator operating at microwave frequencies, fabricated using a standard microelectronic process. As the result its microscopic sensitive areas allow an improved detection at the cell scale which represents a significant step in the study of many biological phenomenon. Thanks to a specific experimental protocol, we present in this paper a simple method allowing electrical parameters measurement on a small number of cells with a good accuracy.

Paper Nr: 14
Title:

EVALUATION OF PSD COMPONENTS AND AAR PARAMETERS AS INPUT FEATURES FOR A SVM CLASSIFIER APPLIED TO A ROBOTIC WHEELCHAIR

Authors:

André Ferreira, José Luis Martín Sánchez, Juan Carlos García García, Manuel Mazo Quintas, Mário Sarcinelli-Filho and Teodiano Freire Bastos-Filho

Abstract: Two distinct signal features suitable to be used as input to a Support-Vector Machine (SVM) classifier in an application involving hands motor imagery and the correspondent EEG signal are evaluated in this paper. Such features are the Power Spectral Density (PSD) components and the Adaptive Autoregressive (AAR) parameters. Different classification times (CT) and time intervals are evaluated, for the AAR-based and the PSD-based features, respectively. The best result (an accuracy of 97.1%) is obtained when using PSD components, while the AAR parameters generated an accuracy of 94.3%. The results also demonstrate that it is possible to use only two EEG channels (bipolar configuration around C3 and C4), discarding the bipolar configuration around Cz. The algorithms were tested with a proprietary EEG data set involving 4 individuals and with a data set provided by the University of Graz (Austria) as well. The resulting classification system is now being implemented in a Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) used to guide a robotic wheelchair.

Paper Nr: 18
Title:

INVESTIGATION OF OPERATING PARAMETERS FOR A SEMEN QUALITY ANALYSIS SYSTEM

Authors:

C. R. Evans, D. C. Hughes, G. McHale, M. I. Newton, P. Roach and S. Atherton

Abstract: To increase the success rate of Artificial Insemination (AI) in animals, it is important that the semen sample is of a high quality. The quality is related to both the number and motility of sperm present. Numerous methods of analysing semen samples exist, but these are generally expensive and/or laboratory based. A useful alternative would be an inexpensive simple system that could be used in the field immediately prior to insemination. We present a time of flight (ToF) technique using a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM). In this system the sperm are introduced at one end of a liquid filled swim channel and self propel to a QCM sensor at the other end. A chemical coating is applied to the QCM to bind the sperm and from the frequency change the number of attached sperm and their ToF can be measured. We report the effect of temperature and the introduction of small quantities of progesterone into the swim channel on the sperm ToF. Results show the QCM can be used to detect the arrival of the sperm and that increasing temperature and the presence of progesterone are both shown to decrease the ToF.

Paper Nr: 20
Title:

MULTIFOCAL ELECTRORETINOGRAPHY - Early Detection of Glaucoma based on Wavelets and Morphological Analysis

Authors:

I. Artacho, J. M. Rodríguez, J. M. Miguel, L. Boquete, P. De La Villa, R. Blanco and S. Ortega

Abstract: This article presents one of the alternative methods developed for the early detection of ocular glaucoma based on the characterisation of mfERG (multifocal electroretinography) readings. The digital signal processing technique is based on Wavelets, hitherto unused in this field, for detection of advanced-stage glaucoma and the study of signal morphology by means of identity patterns for detection of glaucoma in earlier stages. Future research possibilities are also mentioned, such as the study of orientation in the development of the disease.

Paper Nr: 21
Title:

STUDY OF THE PROPERTIES OF BIOTIN-STREPTAVIDIN SENSITIVE BIOFETS

Authors:

Christian Ringhofer, Clemens Heitzinger, Norbert Mauser, Siegfried Selberherr, Thomas Windbacher and Viktor Sverdlov

Abstract: In this work the properties of a biotin-streptavidin BioFET have been studied numerically with homogenized boundary interface conditions as the link between the oxide of the FET and the analyte which contains the biosample. The biotin-streptavidin reaction pair is used in purification and detection of various biomolecules; the strong streptavidin-biotin bond can also be used to attach biomolecules to one another or onto a solid support. Thus this reaction pair in combination with a FET as the transducer is a powerful setup enabling the detection of a wide variety of molecules with many advantages that stem from the FET, like no labeling, no need of expensive read-out devices, the possibility to put the signal amplification and analysis on the same chip, and outdoor usage without the necessity of a lab.

Paper Nr: 28
Title:

AVALANCHE PHOTODIODES FOR HIGH-RESOLUTION PET IMAGING SYSTEMS

Authors:

A. Trindade, B. Carriço, C. S. Ferreira, C. Ortigão, J. Varela, J. Pinheiro, J. C. Silva, M. Ferreira, P. Rodrigues, R. Bugalho and R. Moura

Abstract: A high-resolution Positron Emission Tomography (PET) scanner prototype, named Clear-PEM, was developed by the Portuguese PET Consortium in the framework of the Crystal Clear Collaboration (CCC). This scanner is a PET prototype dedicated for breast cancer imaging mammography, based on a novel readout scheme constituted by fine-pitch scintillator crystals, avalanche photodiodes (APD), low-noise high-gain frontend amplifiers and a reconfigurable FPGA-based electronics readout system. The Clear-PEM scanner is designed to exam both the breast and the auxiliary lymph node areas, aiming at the detection of tumours down to 2 mm in diameter. The prototype has two planar detector heads, each composed of 96 detector modules. Each detector module is composed of a matrix of 32 identical 2x2x20 mm3 LYSO:Ce scintillator crystals, read at both ends by Hamamatsu S8550 APD arrays (4x8) for Depth-of-Interaction (DOI) capability. The APD arrays were characterized through the measurement of gain and dark current as a function of bias voltage, under controlled conditions. A set of 984 APD arrays followed a well defined quality control (QC) protocol, aiming at the rejection of arrays not complying with the defined specifications. From the total of 984, only 1 (0.1%) was rejected, reassuring the trust in these detectors for prototype assembly and future applications.

Paper Nr: 39
Title:

2.4GHZ WIRELESS ELECTROMYOGRAPH SYSTEM WITH STATISTICALLY OPTIMAL AUTOMATIC GAIN CONTROL - Design and Performance Analysis

Authors:

Andrea Morici, Claudio Turchetti and Giorgio Biagetti

Abstract: In this paper a wireless system for non-invasive surface electromyography (SEMG) is presented. The use of a wireless technology, that substitutes cabled electrodes with a wireless link, allows the number of sensors on the body to be increased without affecting the patient’s freedom of movement. Problems in this setup, that extend from energy consumption minimization, to satisfaction of wireless link operational bandwidth and distance requirements, and from the necessity of embedding hardware in an appreciably small device, to making it not too expensive to final customers, have been deeply analyzed and solved. In this context, low rate wireless personal area networks (LR-WPANs) proved to be a good choice for the realization of low-cost embedded wireless electrodes for electromyography. Following these considerations, a low-cost electromyographical wireless device, based on an off-the-shelf IEEE 802.15.4-compatible RF transceiver, have been designed and realized, and optimized signal processing algorithms developed to enhance the system accuracy. In particular, due to the wide range of possible amplitudes for the SEMG signal, an optimal automatic gain control, based on a detailed statistical signal analysis, have been developed to reduce the distorsion at the output of the quantizer.

Paper Nr: 53
Title:

AN ASYNCHRONOUS PROGRAMMABLE PARALLEL 2-D IMAGE FILTER CMOS IC BASED ON THE GILBERT VECTOR MULTIPLIER

Authors:

Rafał Długosz and Vincent Gaudet

Abstract: A novel analogue power-efficient 2-D programmable finite impulse response image filter is proposed. This solution is based on the current-mode Gilbert-vector-multiplier operating in the weak inversion region, which allows for ultra low power operation. The main advantage is in the asynchronous and parallel calculation of all pixel values without using any clock generator. The filter is a programmable structure that allows programmability of different filter masks both low-pass and high-pass. An experimental filter integrated circuit with a resolution of 6x1 pixels dissipates in measurements a power of 30 μW at a data rate of 30 kframes/s in a 180 nm CMOS technology. One of the intended applications of our proposed image filter is in data compression in wireless endoscopic capsules.

Paper Nr: 54
Title:

SYNCHRONIZING AN X-RAY AND ANESTHESIA MACHINE VENTILATOR - A Medical Device Interoperability Case Study

Authors:

David Arney, Insup Lee, Julian M. Goldman and Susan F. Whitehead

Abstract: When a x-ray image is needed during surgery, clinicians may stop the anesthesia machine ventilator while the exposure is made. If the ventilator is not restarted promptly, the patient may experience severe complications. This paper explores the interconnection of a ventilator and simulated x-ray into a prototype plug-and-play medical device system. This work assists ongoing interoperability framework development standards efforts to develop functional and non-functional requirements and illustrates the potential patient safety benefits of interoperable medical device systems by implementing a solution to a clinical use case requiring interoperability.

Paper Nr: 57
Title:

AUTOFLUORESCENCE SPECTROSCOPY OF A HUMAN GASTROINTESTINAL CARCINOMA CELL LINE - Design of Optical Sensors for the Detection of Early Stage Cancer

Authors:

D. S. Ferreira, G. Minas, J. H. Correia, M. Henriques and R. Oliveira

Abstract: Human tissues show autofluorescence (AF) emission spectra when excited by ultraviolet or short-wavelength visible light. The intensity and shape of these spectra are dependent on the tissues pathological state and, therefore, its measurement gives information about the degree of malignant transformations that could lead to cancer. In this article, it is characterized the AF spectra of one human gastrointestinal carcinoma cell line (CACO-2). The obtained results showed significant AF signal for the presence of amino acids. The spectral information obtained can be used for the design of fluorescence optical sensors that will be incorporated on an endoscopic capsule, for measuring the AF emission spectra of normal and cancer cells. This integrated optical system will innovate on the diagnosis of early stage cancer.

Paper Nr: 58
Title:

A LOW-POWER INTEGRATED CIRCUIT FOR ANALOG SPIKE DETECTION AND SORTING IN NEURAL PROSTHESIS SYSTEMS

Authors:

A. S. Spinelli, A. Oliynyk, A. Bonfanti, G. Zambra, G. Baranauskas, L. Fadiga, R. Gusmeroli and T. Borghi

Abstract: Since the proof that prosthetic devices directly controlled by neurons are viable, there is a huge increase in the interest in integrated multichannel recording systems that register neural signals with implanted chronic electrodes. One of the bottlenecks in such compact systems is the limited rate of data transmission in the wireless link, requiring some sort of data compression/reduction. To solve such a problem, we propose an analog low power integrated system for action potential (AP) detection and sorting. In this system, AP detection is performed by a double threshold method that reduces the probability of false detections while AP sorting is based on the measurement of peak and trough amplitudes and spike width. The circuit has been implemented in 0.35−μm CMOS technology with power consumption of 70 μW per channel including the pre-amplifier. The system was tested with real traces. Compared to standard AP sorting techniques, the proposed simple AP sorter was able to correctly assign to single units over 90% of detected APs. Thus, our system preserves most information encoded by APs and we estimate that for a typical trace the required bandwidth per channel will be less than 4 kbps or 400 kbps for 100 channel.

Paper Nr: 67
Title:

A BIOLOGICAL MONITORING MODULE BASED ON A CERAMIC MICROFLUIDIC PLATFORM

Authors:

Bruno Balluch, Erwin Gaubitzer, Gottfried Köhler, Ibrahim Atassi, Khatuna Elizbarowna Gvichiya, Michael Edetsberger and Walter Smetana

Abstract: A 3-dimensional mesofluidic biological monitoring module has been successfully designed and fabricated using a low-temperature co-fired ceramic (LTCC) technology. This mesofluidic device consists of a network of micro-channels, a spherical mixing cavity and measuring ports. A selection of appropriate commercially available ceramic tapes has been chosen with regard to their biocompatibility performance. Specific processing procedures required for the realization of such a complex structure are demonstrated. Three dimensional numerical flow simulations have been conducted to characterize the concentration profiles of liquids at a specific measuring port and verified by experiment.

Paper Nr: 78
Title:

MINIATURIZED ELECTROCHEMICAL SENSING SYSTEMS FOR IN VITRO AND IN VIVO BIOMEDICAL APPLICATIONS

Authors:

C. Mc Caffrey, D. W. M. Arrigan, J. Doyle, K. Twomey, N. V. Bakounine, V. Beni and V. I. Ogurtsov

Abstract: Development of miniaturized electrochemical sensing systems for in vitro and in vivo biomedical applications is discussed. The systems are based on high sensitivity potentiostatic instrumentation, which is suitable for chemical and biochemical sensors. The in vitro application is an 8 channel hand-held PC-controlled system with user-friendly interface. This is capable of implementing different electrochemical potentiodynamic techniques. The in vivo applications are realized using two approaches: a small sized PCB with commercially available ICs, and a specially developed on-chip system. The performance of the systems is validated through electrochemical characterization of a microarray sensor.

Paper Nr: 87
Title:

IMPLEMENTATION OF AN AUTOMATED ECG-BASED DIAGNOSIS ALGORITHM FOR A WIRELESS BODY SENSOR PLATAFORM

Authors:

David Atienza, Francisco J. Rincón, Giovanni De Micheli, Joaquín Recas, Laura Gutiérrez, Marcos Sánchez-Élez, Mónica Jiménez, Nadia Khaled and Víctor Díaz

Abstract: Wireless Body Sensor Networks (WBSN) are poised to become a key enabling technology of personal systems for pervasive healthcare. Recent results have however shown that the conventional approach to their design, which consists in continuous wireless streaming of the sensed data to a central data collector, is unsustainable in terms of network lifetime and autonomy. Furthermore, it was established that wireless data communication is responsible for most of the energy consumption. To address the energy inefficiency of conventional WBSNs, we advocate an advanced WBSN concept where sensor nodes exploit their available, yet limited processing and storage resources to deploy advanced embedded intelligence and processing, to reduce the amount of wireless data communication and consequently energy consumption. More specifically, this paper addresses the design and optimization of an automated real-time electrocardiogram (ECG) signal analysis and cardiovascular arrhythmia diagnosis application for a prototype sensor node called Wireless 25 EEG/ECG system. The satifactory accuracy of this on-line automated ECG-based analysis and diagnosis system is assessed and compared to the salient off-line automated ECG analysis algorithms. More importantly, our results show an energy consumption reduction of 80% to 100% with respect to conventional WBSNs, when our analysis and diagnosis algorithm is used to process the sensed ECG data to extract its relevant features, which are then wirelessly reported to the WBSN central data collector, after the node can automatically determine the potential cardiovascular pathology without human monitoring.

Paper Nr: 90
Title:

DEVELOPMENT OF A MYOELECTRIC CONTROLLER BASED ON KNEE ANGLE ESTIMATION

Authors:

Adson Ferreira da Rocha, Alberto López Delis, Francisco Assis de Oliveira Nascimento, Geovany Araújo Borges and João Luiz Azevedo de Carvalho

Abstract: This paper presents the development of a bioinstrumentation system for the acquisition and pre-processing of surface electromyographic (SEMG) signals, as well as the proposal of a myoelectric controller for leg prostheses, using algorithms for feature extraction and classification of myoelectric patterns. The implemented microcontrolled bioinstrumentation system is capable of recording up to four SEMG channels, and one electrogoniometer channel. The proposed neural myoelectric controller is capable of predicting the intended knee joint angle from the measured SEMG singals. The controller is designed in three stages: feature extraction, using auto-regressive model and amplitude histogram; feature projection, using self organizing maps; and pattern classification, using a Levenberg-Marquadt neural network. The use of SEMG signals and additional mechanical information such as that provided by the electrogoniometer may improve precision in the control of leg prostheses. Preliminary results are presented.

Paper Nr: 96
Title:

CATECHOL DETETION USING AN OPTICAL MEMS SENSOR

Authors:

Gregory F. Payne, Liangli Yu, Peter H. Dykstra, Reza Ghodssi and Stephan T. Koev

Abstract: We report the successful fabrication and testing of an optical MEMS sensor for the detection of the toxic phenol, catechol. Catechol’s presence in food and drinking water posses a health concern due to its harmful effects on cell respiration. By-products of catechol oxidation have demonstrated increased absorbance changes in a chitosan film in the UV and near UV range. Our reported sensor takes advantage of this unique absorbance property to detect catechol by measuring the change in light intensity at 472 nm, thus eliminating non-specific responses that occur from other oxidized chemicals which do not cause the absorbance change. Concentrations as low as 1 mM catechol are detected while control experiments including ascorbic acid display no measurable response.

Paper Nr: 99
Title:

CHITOSAN FOR MEMS - Demonstration of Micromechanical and Optical Biosensors

Authors:

Gary W. Rubloff, Gregory F. Payne, Peter H. Dykstra, Reza Ghodssi, Stephan T. Koev and William E. Bentley

Abstract: This paper presents the biological functionalization of MEMS sensors by using the polysaccharide chitosan. Chitosan is a unique polymer due to its abundance of primary amine groups and its ability to be electrodeposited with spatial and temporal control. Biomolecules such as DNA and proteins can be attached to chitosan films by standard coupling chemistries. This biofunctionalization approach was demonstrated for two different MEMS devices: a microcantilever and an optical sensor. The devices were coated with chitosan and probe DNA and were used for detecting the hybridization with target DNA. Here, we describe the design, fabrication procedure, and testing results for both of these biosensors.

Paper Nr: 100
Title:

DROPLET MANIPULATION ON HIGH ADHESION SUPERHYDROPHOBIC SURFACES

Authors:

Daisuke Ishii, Hiroshi Yabu and Masatsugu Shimomura

Abstract: Micro droplet handling is very important for micro and nano fluidic devices and an intelligent bio interface. Micro droplet transfer via high adhesion superhydrophobic surfaces has been reported in recent years. We demonstrated water droplet adhesion controllable superhydrophobic metal-polymer surfaces. Moreover we achieved micro droplet transfer between superhydrophobic surfaces by using different droplet adhesion properties. Water micro droplets were transferred from a low-adhesive superhydrophobic surface to a middle-adhesive superhydrophobic surface via a high-adhesive superhydrophobic surface without any mass loss. After transferred droplet possessed high water contact angle over 150 degrees. These moving processes were performed repeatedly. Droplet handlings on the adhesion superhydrophobic surfaces will be expected for fluidic bio devises with energy saving.

Paper Nr: 106
Title:

POLYISOPRENE – NANOSTRUCTURED CARBON COMPOSITE (PNCC) MATERIAL FOR VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND DETECTION

Authors:

Gita Sakale, Maris Knite, Valdis Teteris and Velta Tupureina

Abstract: Our scientific group has chosen the elaboration of conductive composite material, which could be useful for volatile organic compound detection, as one of research areas. It was found out that the most sensitive composite material consists of polyisoprene and 10 mass parts of nanostructured carbon black. The electric resistance changes of the composite in presence of 10 different saturated organic solvents vapour were measured. Results obtained form our mass-sorption experiments indicated that electrical resistance of the composite increases because of volatile organic compound (VOC) molecule absorption in the composite matrix material. We also evaluated VOC compatibility with PNCC matrix material and estimated how the PNCC resistance change velocity (Vr ) versus organic solvent vapour molecule diameter varies.

Short Papers
Paper Nr: 1
Title:

BIOSIGNALS WITH A FLOOR SENSOR - Near Field Imaging Floor Sensor Measures Impedance Changes in the Torso

Authors:

Henry Rimminen and Raimo Sepponen

Abstract: We analyse biosignals recorded with a near field imaging floor sensor, using a test group of five people. This human tracking system is capable of non-contact biosignal recording. A time domain integration method is used to extract periodic cardiac waveforms from the raw signals, while an ECG signal is used as a trigger for windowing. The most favourable posture for cardiac monitoring is when the test subjects are lying prone on the sensor floor. A clear correlation between the test subjects can be found when waveforms in the lying prone or supine postures are compared. The respiration monitoring capability is also discussed.

Paper Nr: 3
Title:

VIBRATIONAL SPECTROSCOPY (FTIR-ATR AND FT-RAMAN) - A Rapid and Useful Tool for Phycocolloid Analysis

Authors:

Ana M. Amado, Fred van de Velde, Leonel Pereira and Paulo J. A. Ribeiro-Claro

Abstract: The wide industrial application of phycocolloids (e.g. alginates, agar and carrageenans) is based on their particular properties to form gels in aqueous solution. Recently, new spectroscopic techniques have provided more accurate identification of the natural composition of the polysaccharides produced by these seaweeds. With the combination of two spectroscopic techniques (FTIR-ATR and FT-Raman) it is possible to identify the principal seaweed colloids in ground seaweed samples as in extracted material. Since the seaweed samples receive the minimum of handling and treatment (e.g. they are simply dried and ground), the composition determined represents, as accurately as possible, the native composition of the phycocolloids.

Paper Nr: 10
Title:

BIODEVICES BASED ON SHAPE-MEMORY POLYMERS - Current Capabilities and Challenges

Authors:

Andrés Díaz Lantada, Héctor Lorenzo-Yustos, Javier Echavarri Otero, José Luis Muñoz Sanz, Juan Manuel Munoz-Guijosa, Julio Muñoz-García, Pilar Lafont Morgado and Vicente Lorenzo Esteban

Abstract: Shape-memory polymers are active materials with thermomechanical coupling and a high capability to recover from high levels of deformation, which, combined with their low cost and density has favoured the appearance of numerous applications, particularly those linked to the Medical Industry. In many cases, these materials are of medical standard, which increases the chances of obtaining biocompatible devices. In the last decade enormous progress has been made on many areas, regarding these materials, such as synthesis, characterization, activation and others, aimed at improving their applicability. However, various spheres of action still remain that require more in depth research to promote the production start-up of various shape-memory polymer-based devices that have had laboratory validation. This work sets out the potential these materials provide for developing biodevices and the main advances achieved. Also shown are various medical devices just being developed, as well current study needs and trends.

Paper Nr: 11
Title:

INFRARED THERMOGRAPHY AS A SUPPORT TOOL FOR DEVELOPING SHAPE-MEMORY POLYMER BIODEVICES

Authors:

Andrés Diaz Lantada, Héctor Lorenzo-Yustos, Javier Echavarri Otero, José Luis Muñoz Sanz, Juan Manuel Munoz-Guijosa, Julio Muñoz-García and Pilar Lafont Morgado

Abstract: Infrared Thermography is a technique for carrying out inspections and non-destructive tests that can also be used as a support tool for developing medical devices based on the use of shape memory polymer materials. This paper sets out some of the opportunities and advantages provided by this technique for designing the heating systems associated with these shape-memory polymer based devices. Its application for developing an active pincer, whose geometry can be changed by heating, is explained in detail. Similar devices can be used as active catheter ends for minimally invasive surgery tasks. These thermography tests can also be used as a validation tool for the heating simulations, linked to optimising this type of devices, and also during “in vitro” tests aimed at obtaining safer active implantable devices.

Paper Nr: 13
Title:

AN EXPLOITATION OF THE SELF-ORGANIZING MAP FOR HUMAN MOTION ANALYSIS

Authors:

P. Kurdthongmee and W. Kurdthongmee

Abstract: Falls are the most common type of home accidents among elderly people and are a major threat to their health and independence. Evaluating the risk of falling is important because it enables the provision of adapted assistance and of taking preventive measures with subjects deemed at risk of falling. Currently, the risk of falling has been evaluated by using questionnaires with their associated problems of subjectivity and limited accuracy in recall. The Kohonen Self-Organizing Map (SOM) has found applicability in a wide range of application areas. Our research as a whole has a final objective to employ the concept SOM to implement an adaptive fall risk detection and warning system. In this paper, we present the preliminary results from our research to utilize SOM to analyze the motion parameters from a miniature sensor with integrated gyroscopes and accelerometers attached to the chest of an individual. The results clearly indicate that SOM can be successfully used to cluster the activities by means of their motion parameters. This is very promising results to extend the concept to implement our final objective system.

Paper Nr: 17
Title:

SURFACE MODIFICATION OF DENTAL DEVICES - Surface Analysis of Plasma-based Fluorine and Silver Ion Implanted & Deposited Acrylic Resin

Authors:

Kenji Arita, Milanita E. Lucas and Yukari Shinonaga

Abstract: The aim of this study was to modify acrylic resin (PMMA) with fluorine (F) and silver (Ag) dual ions by a hybrid process of plasma-based ion implantation & deposition (PBII-D), and to enable the surface of the devices inhibition of bacterial adhesion. The surface characteristics, hydrophobic property and brushing abrasion resistance were evaluated by XPS analysis, contact angle measurement and brushing abrasion test. F and Ag were implanted-deposited and have formed carbon-fluoride and Ag-deposited layer on the surface of the PMMA plate. The contact angle of F+Ag implanted-deposited PMMA was increased compared with non-treated control and F only deposited PMMA. After 60,000 brushing strokes, the contact angle of modified PMMA remained to be higher than that of the control PMMA. This study indicated that F+Ag implantation-deposition has improved the hydrophobic property of acrylic resin and was sustained even after routine tooth brushing.

Paper Nr: 25
Title:

MICROCOMPUTERIZED SYSTEM TO ASSESS THE PERFORMANCE OF LUNG VENTILATORS

Authors:

Daniel Marinho Silva, Maurício Campelo Tavares and Raimes Moraes

Abstract: Lung ventilators may harm patients if they are not properly calibrated. Therefore, they must be periodically assessed to verify if the supplied volume and pressure match the ventilatory settings. This paper presents a system based on a microcomputer to assess the performance of lung ventilators. The hardware of the developed system contains three modules: transducer, conditioning and acquisition. The transducer module converts, to electrical signals, the pressure and flow waveforms supplied to a lung simulator by a lung ventilator. It also supplies digital measurements of temperature and relative humidity (RH). The conditioning module amplifies and filters the pressure and flow signals. The acquisition module reads the digital measurements (temperature and RH) and carries out the analog to digital conversion of the conditioning module outputs, sending these data to the microcomputer via radio-frequency. Software written in C++ shows the acquired waveforms on the PC screen and calculates the parameters required by the IEC 60601-2-12. Data on the lung ventilator model, the sampled waveforms and the calculated parameters are stored in a database, allowing the equipment follow-up. Comparative result of tests carried out with the developed system and with commercial equipment is presented.

Paper Nr: 29
Title:

MODELING OF MERIDIAN CHANNELS

Authors:

Miyong Su, Yonghong Tan and Zimin Wang

Abstract: In this paper, the auto-regressive and moving average (ARMA) models are constructed for the meridian channels based on the measuring data obtained from the acupoints in the Lung Channel of Hand-Taiyin (LU), the Pericardium Channel of Hand-Jueyin (PC). For comparison, the ARMA models for the contrastive nonacupoints around the measured acupoints are also obtained. Then, the analysis based on the zeros-poles distribution of the obtained models is implemented.

Paper Nr: 35
Title:

MAGNETOMETRY USING ELECTROMAGNETICALLY INDUCED TRANSPARENCY IN A ROOM TEMPERATURE VAPOUR CELL - Developing an Optical Magnetometer that Utilises the Steep Dispersion Curve Observed in EIT to Detect Ti

Authors:

Benjamin T. H. Varcoe and Melody R. Blackman

Abstract: The physiological importance of magnetic signals within biological systems has been investigated with ever increasing sensitivities over the last decade. Currently superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs) are at the forefront of bio-magnetic diagnostics. In this research we aim to build an optics based magnetometer that can compete with the sensitivity of the SQUID but that runs at a lower start up and operational cost. To do this we intend to use the steep dispersion curve observed in the atomic physics effect electromagnetically induced transparency. This magnetometer can operate at room temperature, its design is a convenient method for monitoring bio-magnetic fields, making this technology an affordable technique for further bio-magnetic diagnostics.

Paper Nr: 40
Title:

DEVELOPMENT OF AN ELECTRICAL STIMULATION DEVICE FOR OSSEOINTEGRATED AMPUTEES - A Novel Approach for Expediting Skeletal Attachment and Rehabilitation

Authors:

Brad Isaacson, Jeroen Stinstra, Rob MacLeod and Roy Bloebaum

Abstract: The projected number of American amputees is expected to rise to 3.6 million by 2050. Many of these individuals depend on artificial limbs to perform routine activities, but prosthetic suspensions using traditional socket technology can prove to be cumbersome and uncomfortable for a person with limb loss. Moreover, for those with high proximal amputations, limited residual limb length may prevent exoprosthesis attachment all together. Osseointegration technology is a novel operative procedure that allows integration between host tissue and an orthopaedic implant and has been shown to improve clinical outcomes by allowing direct transfer of loads to a bone-implant interface. However, the associated surgical procedures require long rehabilitation programs that may be reduced through expedited skeletal attachment via electrical stimulation. To determine optimal electrode size and placement, we have developed a system for computational modeling of the electric fields that arise during electrical stimulation of residual limbs. Three patients with retrospective CT scans were selected and three dimensional reconstructions were created using customized software (Seg3D and SCIRun). These software packages supported the development of patient specific models and allowed for interactive manipulation of electrode position and size; all variables that could affect the electric fields around a percutaneous osseointegrated implant. Preliminary results of the electric fields at the implant interface support the need for patient specific modeling in order to achieve the homogenous electric field distribution required to induce osteoblast migration and enhance skeletal fixation.

Paper Nr: 44
Title:

BRAIN COMPUTER INTERFACE - Feedback Effect Analysis by Comparison of Discrimination Capability of On-line and Off-line Experimental Procedures based on LDA

Authors:

Antonio Barrientos Cruz and José Luis Martínez Pérez

Abstract: This paper analyses the user’s feedback influence in the mental task discrimination capability through the comparison of results obtained from Off-line and On-line Brain Computer Interface experimental procedures. Experiments performed under these two paradigms were carried out by five male volunteers. In order to develop a wearable BCI device only two electrodes in C3 and C4 zones have been used for electroencephalographic signal acquisition. These procedures apply seven different types of preprocessing windows and Linear Discrimination Analysis technique to reduce the dimension of the feature space before the quantification of the discrimination capability between the proposed mental activities.The discrimination capability is quantified through statistical analysis, based on bilateral contrast test, between the population of the LDA transformed feature vectors.

Paper Nr: 46
Title:

DATA ACQUISITION ELECTRONICS FOR PET MAMMOGRAPHY IMAGING

Authors:

Andreia Trindade, Carlos Leong, Fernando Piedade, Isabel C. Teixeira, J. Paulo Teixeira, J. F. Pinheiro, João Varela, Joel Rego, M. Ferreira, Pedro Rodrigues, Pedro Machado, Pedro Lousã, Pedro Neves, R. Bugalho and Vasco Bexiga

Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to present recent developments in the off-detector electronics of a PET (Positron Emission Tomography) system for mammography imaging. In particular, problems and solutions associated with the integration of its Data Acquisition Electronics are targeted. Synchronism is a critical issue in the DAE system. A resynchronization module is proposed to solve communication problems with the internal asynchronous busses with limited degradation of the communication rate, as compared with fully synchronous solutions. Data processing refers to 64 dual-channels, 11bit/channel, at a frequency of 100MHz. The maximum of the DAE output rate is 220 MB/s corresponding to 1 MCoincidence/s. The robustness of the proposed solutions has been validated with software simulation and hardware implementation. Results of test and validation on FPGA, boards and buses are presented.

Paper Nr: 47
Title:

DEVELOPMENT OF STRATHCLYDE UNIVERSITY DATA LOGGING SYSTEM (SUDALS) FOR USE WITH FLEXIBLE ELECTROGONIOMETERS

Authors:

G. Valsan, P. J. Rowe and Vivek Padmanaabhan Indra Mohan

Abstract: We have developed a 6 channel battery operated remote control microprocessor based system that collects data from flexible electrogoniometers and force sensing resistors attached to the lower extremities of the body. During functional activities, the user-friendly system stores the data from these transducers and transfers the same to a PC at the end of the recording period via a bluetooth connection. Software on the PC then displays the angular displacement and allows visual inspection of the entire sequence of recordings or particular events of interest. This system was tested on 10 normal subjects and the pattern pertaining to the flexion/extension of knee during range of activities of daily living (ADL) such as walking, ascending and descending stairs, in and out of a chair and deep squatting were recorded and found to be reproducible and similar to those reported in the literature.

Paper Nr: 49
Title:

ELECTRONIC DEVICE FOR SEISMOCARDIOGRAPHY - Noninvasive Examination and Signal Evaluation

Authors:

Martin Trefny, Milan Stork and Zdenek Trefny

Abstract: The Quantitative seismocardiography (Q-SCG) opens a new field of cardiovascular dynamics examination. Using this absolutely non-invasive method, a new field of monitoring heart rate variability was opened up. Systolic forces as well as heart rate variability in relation to changes in external stimuli are registered. Q-SCG probably offers a more complex view of both isotropic and chronotropic heart functions. It will be suitable for: examining operators exposed to stress; for assessing the effect of work, fatigue and mental stress; for monitoring persons as part of disease prevention; for determining a person’s ability to carry out their duties both on the ground and in the air. An electronic system for acquisition of data for noninvasive Q-SCG and signal processing is also presented. The measuring system is based on analog filter, analog/digital converter, microcontroller and personal computer. A special digital smoothing polynomial filter is used for signal processing. The example of real measured and evaluated signal is also shown.

Paper Nr: 59
Title:

AN ASIC SOLUTION FOR INTELLIGENT ELECTRODES AND ACTIVE-CABLE USDED IN A WEARABLE ECG MONITORING SYSTEM

Authors:

Fredrik Jonsson, Geng Yang, Hannu Tenhunen, Jian Chen and Li-Rong Zheng

Abstract: This paper describes a digital CMOS Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) solution with the complete data acquisition and transmission for the use in a wearable electrocardiography (ECG) monitoring system. The main particularity of this system is related to the proposed reconfigurable microchip architecture for an intelligent electrode. The chip area is 2.3 mm2 in a standard 0.18 µm CMOS technology. The chip is operating at 24 MHz system clock with 3.3 V power supply for I/O cells and 1.8 V for the core circuit respectively. The estimated dynamic power dissipation is only 857 µW. The post-layout simulation results show that the microchip embedded inside an intelligent electrode features ultra low power consumption and is quite feasible for a hand-held Personal Health Assistant (PHA) which uses a battery as energy source.

Paper Nr: 62
Title:

ROBUST EAR LOCATED HEART RATE MONITOR

Authors:

C. Verjus, J. Krauss, L. Rossini, M. Bertschi, P. Theurillat, P. Renevey and R. Vetter

Abstract: We have developed a device for heart rate estimation with the optical sensing unit integrated in a classic media player earphone. The sensing principle is based on an optical infrared measurement directly on the ear lobe whereas the heart rate estimation is obtained utilizing robust model-based signal processing techniques valid even for quasi periodic activities such as running. Nevertheless, the remaining problem related to these strategies are statistically undetectable inter-beat during short term sporadic activities. In this paper, we present a novel robust inter-beat discarding method based on an activity related modeling of the expected heart rate dynamics that incorporates a simple cardiovascular model to reduce related inaccuracies in the heart rate estimation. A validation protocol has been designed and 9 subjects were asked to carry out their daily normal office activities for a time length ranging from 1 to 2 hours. A global absolute relative error mean of 0.9% between the estimated heart rate and a reference device and a sensitivity above 90% demonstrate encouraging performances of the proposed device.

Paper Nr: 64
Title:

A WIRELESS EMBEDDED DEVICE FOR PERSONALIZED ULTRAVIOLET MONITORING

Authors:

Alireza Vahdatpour, Foad Dabiri, Hyduke Noshadi, Jerrid E. Matthews, Majid Sarrafzadeh and Navid Amini

Abstract: The skin care product market is growing due to the threat of ultraviolet (UV) radiation caused by the destruction of the ozone layer, increasing demand for tanning, and the tendency to wear less clothing. Accordingly, there is a potential demand for a personalized UV monitoring device, which can play a fundamental role in skin cancer prevention by providing measurements of UV radiation intensities and corresponding recommendations. This paper highlights the development and initial validation of a wireless and portable embedded device for personalized UV monitoring which is based on a novel software architecture, a high-end UV sensor, and conventional PDA (or a cell phone). In terms of short-term applications, by calculating the UV index, it informs the users about their maximum recommended sun exposure time by taking their skin type and sun protection factor (SPF) of the applied sunscreen into consideration. As for long-term applications, given that the damage caused by UV light is accumulated over days, it displays the amount of UV received over a certain course of time, from a single day to a month.

Paper Nr: 65
Title:

IMMUNOSENSORS FOR ATRAZINE DETECTION IN RED WINE SAMPLES

Authors:

Ángel Rodríguez, Enrique Valera, Francisco J. Sanchez, Javier Ramón-Azcón and M.-Pilar Marco

Abstract: Two novel immunosensors, one impedimetric and other one conductimetric, for atrazine detection in red wine samples have been developed. Impedimetric immunosensor is based on an array of interdigitated μ-electrodes (IDµEs) and bioreagents specifically developed to detect this pesticide. Conductimetric immunosensor incorporates additionally gold nanoparticles. Bioreagents were covalently immobilized on the surface of the electrodes (interdigital space). In both cases the biochemical determination of atrazine is possible without any redox mediator. For the case of the impedimetric immunosensor, the detection method is based on impedimetric measurements (in a wide range of frequencies), whereas in the case of the conductimetric immunosensor the detection method is based on conductimetric measurements (DC measurements).The potential of the impedimetric immunosensor to analyze atrazine in complex sample matrices, such as red wine, have been evaluated. This immunosensor can detect atrazine with limits of detection in the order sub-ppb, far below the maximum residue level (MRL) (50 µg L−1) established by European Union (EU) for residues of this herbicide in the wine grapes.

Paper Nr: 81
Title:

A LOW COST LED BASED BILIRUBIN METER - Description and Evaluation of a Low Cost Spectrophotometer Bilirubin Analyzer

Authors:

L. A. L. Azeka and M. S. V. de Paiva

Abstract: Jaundice is a disease caused by excessive levels of bilirubin in the blood. It is very common in newborns and mainly in premature ones. By using resources such as LEDs with high luminous intensity and light to digital photoreceptors, the present article describes and evaluates a low cost bilirubin meter (Bilimed), which measures the total bilirubin in the blood serum samples of neonates, using the technique known as direct spectrophotometry. Samples of newborns were collected and measured in the equipment. The result was compared with reference values of a commercial bilirubinometer and with laboratory analysis in order to evaluate the equipment’s performance.

Paper Nr: 83
Title:

CORRECTION OF ACOUSTIC LENS ERROR IN SPATIAL COMPOUNDING OF ULTRASONIC DIAGNOSTIC IMAGES

Authors:

Myoung H. Choi

Abstract: Spatial compounding has been used in ultrasonic imaging for suppressing speckle noise. The technique generally involves electronically steering the ultrasonic beams. The steering angle of the ultrasonic beam is distorted by the acoustic lens structure of the probe that is used to focus the beam mechanically. These errors introduced by the lens structure cause misalignment of the ultrasonic images received at different steering angles, and consequently results in the blurred image after spatial compounding. In this paper, a solution is proposed that corrects the lens error by using image registration. The lens error was compensated by registering the wire target images before spatial compounding. An efficient registration algorithm was developed to compute the transformation matrix required for the registration. The images were registered by the transformation matrix before spatial compounding.

Paper Nr: 84
Title:

AN AUTOMATED ATHLETE PERFORMANCE EVALUATION SYSTEM - From Theory to Practice

Authors:

Gonçalo Martins, Hugo Silva, Maria Valamatos, Pedro Mil-Homens and Susana Palma

Abstract: In order to obtain information on athletic performance, strength and power characteristics of the athlete are generally evaluated. However, due to the large number of variables needed for the assessment, this kind of evaluations is usually time consuming. Taking advantage of recent developments in the area of sensors and acquisition systems and using signal processing algorithms reported in the literature, we developed a new Athletic Performance Evaluation System. This system automatically determines evaluation parameters and integrates them in ready-made reports, decreasing the time involved in the evaluation process. The system is based on the installation of sensors and wireless acquisition systems at the assessment workstations of a Sports Evaluation Laboratory. At present, Jump Platform, Leg Press and Multipower workstations are being used. Strength and displacement data collected by the sensors at these workstations is automatically processed in real time at the Central Base Station where standard force and power related evaluation parameters are determined. Graphical representations of time evolution of the variables being measured by the sensors are showed in real time on the screen. Each evaluation session is defined by a protocol that can be specifically created by the coach for each athlete. The results of the evaluations are stored in an athletes' database so that the historic performance of the athlete can be easily assessed. The resulting system presents the deployment of sound theoretical evaluation metrics in a real time athlete performance evaluation system.

Paper Nr: 85
Title:

SIMULATION AND EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN OF A SYMMETRY CONTROLLER FOR FES CYCLING OPTIMISED ON STROKE PATIENTS

Authors:

Alessandra Pedrocchi, Emilia Ambrosini, Giancarlo Ferrigno, Simona Ferrante and Thomas Schauer

Abstract: This study deals with the design of a controller for FES cycling able to assure a symmetrical pedalling. This controller is exploitable in the rehabilitation of patients with unilateral neurological disorders which need to recover a symmetrical use of the legs. The controller updates the values of pulse width used in the stimulation of the two legs in order to nullify the unbalance between the torques produced at the cranks and then to maintain a symmetrical pedalling. The controller was tested first in simulation by means of a neuro-musculo skeletal model of a stroke patient which identifies the kinematic and dynamic of cycling induced by FES. After a stability analysis and an optimization of the controller tuning performed in simulation, the controller was tested experimentally on a healthy subject. The results of this trial show that the controller is able to reach a symmetrical pedalling in about 18 s, starting from an unbalance of 0.73 Nm. Furthermore, it is able to maintain a symmetrical task with small oscillations of the PWs. Thus, its employment in the rehabilitation of stroke patients could be crucial in the recovery of motor functions, such as walking, where a cyclical symmetrical motor task is required.

Paper Nr: 88
Title:

EXPERIMENTAL DIGITAL BPSK MODULATOR DESIGN WITH VHDL CODE FOR BIODIVECES APPLICATIONS

Authors:

Gihad Elamary, Graeme Chester and Jeffrey Neasham

Abstract: In this paper, we propose a new simple design for a BPSK modulator applied to implant telemetry applications as demonstrated. We used hardware description language VHDL (IEEE standard) to generate a BPSK digital signal. The carrier and data are interfaced to the CPLD and FPGAs board for testing, we used the local clock oscillator, which is operating at 25.175 MHz reduced into 12.5 MHz for the carrier and 2Mbps for data source. The modelled modulator has been designed simulated and performance was evaluated by measurements, considering low power consumption and size for medical purpose. Moreover, the advantages of this modulator are it can be reconfigured and upgraded to enhance the bit rate.

Paper Nr: 94
Title:

MESOTHERAPY DEVICE FOR ESTHETIC APPLICATIONS

Authors:

J. G. Rocha, J. M. Cabral, M. S. Martins and V. M. G. Correia

Abstract: This article describes a complete system prototype to be used in aesthetic mesotherapy. The system is composed by two main blocks: a Master block, whose chief component is a CPU, which provides the user interface and a Slave block, implemented with a micro controller and a wave generator, which produces the appropriated voltages and currents compatible with the mesotherapy treatments. The whole system is powered by a 12V power supply and the output signal has a voltage that range between -54 V and 54 V. The output signal is composed by the overlap of two frequencies: the first one is selected in the range from 1.2 kHz to 1.8 kHz and the second one is in the range from 0.07 Hz to 2 Hz. The system is being tested in clinical environment with real patients showing very good promising results.

Paper Nr: 95
Title:

A RECONFIGURABLE ARRAY FOR BLIND SOURCE-SEPARATION ON AN FPGA

Authors:

Daniel Herrera, Miguel Figueroa and Ricardo Escalona

Abstract: We present a reconfigurable array which performs blind source separation on a range of field-programmable gate array (FPGA) devices. Our array uses independent component analysis (ICA) with the InfoMax algorithm to separate a mixture of signals without an external reference. We describe two configurations of the array, representing distinct points in the design space. Our experimental results show a performance improvement of more than one order of magnitude over an optimized software implementation of the algorithm on a computer, with a power consumption of just 100mW. Our array successfully separates a fetal electrocardiogram (ECG) mixture into the source signals of mother and fetus, enabling medical analysis on the resulting independent components.

Paper Nr: 97
Title:

IMPROVING SURFACE ENERGY AND HYDROPHILIZATION OF POLY(ETHYLENE TEREPHTHALATE) BY ENZYMATIC TREATMENTS

Authors:

Isabel C. Gouveia, João A. Queiroz and Laura C. Antunes

Abstract: In order to increase the hydrophilicity and adhesion of poly (ethylene terephthalate) (PET) fabrics it was studied the action of three types of enzymes (Texazym PES sp5, Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus oryzae) applied at different incubation times and concentrations. This processes aims to modify morphologically and chemically the superficial structure of the polymeric materials (PET), forming new carboxyl, hydroxyl and other polar groups at the surface, in order to increase adhesion and hydrophilicity. The increase in the hydrophilicity of the fabric was evaluated by measuring the contact angle being the best results obtained for the Texazym PES (87.45º), much smaller than the non-treated fabric (122.95º); and by the wicking height, which revealed an important improvement in the hydrophilicity. The formation of carboxyl and hydroxyl groups was evaluated by a staining procedure with a cationic and reactive dye, respectively. It was also confirmed by the increasing in the polar component of the surface energy, determined by the Qwens-Wendt method. The higher surface energy and thus, the higher adhesion properties, were obtained for the esterase Texazym, using 0.12U during 90 minutes. The surface morphology of the non-enzymatic-treated and enzymatic-treated samples was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showing no degradation of fibers treated under the selected optimum conditions. In contrary, this method showed an important surface cleaning action by removing some undesirable polyester oligomers.

Paper Nr: 101
Title:

USING MULTI-AGENT SYSTEMS TO STUDY PARACRINIENNE CELLS INTERACTION

Authors:

Lynda Dib

Abstract: This paper presents our multi-agent framework for modelling and predicting the emergent behaviour resulting from the presence of distinct environmental conditions that lead to bad interaction of cells in their tissue. As the cellular interaction is an important behaviour permitting the survive of cells in their tissue, the objective of our simulator is to be a virtual world of cellular biology while analyzing and simulating the control mechanisms during the paracrinien communication between cells in order to help its specialists to better understand, to good interpret and to warn changes of cell states according to its actual internal state and to the state of its environment.

Paper Nr: 102
Title:

A RF TRANSCEIVER FOR WIRELESS MONITORING SYSTEMS OF THE VERTEBRAL COLUMN BEHAVIOUR

Authors:

J. H. Correia and J. P. Carmo

Abstract: This paper presents a radio-frequency (RF) transceiver designed, using a standard 0.18 µm CMOS process, for operation in the 2.4 GHz ISM band. The receiver has a sensivity of -64 dBm and consumes 3.5 mW from a 1.5 V supply. The RF transmitter delivers an output power of +11 dBm (15 mW) with a power consumption of 45 mW. These features make the RF transceiver suitable to be integrated in microsystems, where the low-power is a major requirement. The application of these microsystems is to monitoring the influence of heavy loads, in the behaviour of the vertebral column.

Paper Nr: 110
Title:

A MULTI-LAYERED MICROFLUIDIC DEVICE FOR MAGNETOPHORETIC CELL SEPARATION

Authors:

Hee-Taek Lim, Hye-Lyn Lee, Hyo-Il Jung, Hyung-Joon Kim, Min-Suk Park and Suk-Heung Song

Abstract: In this paper, we present the design and experimental results of a multi-layered microfluidic electromagnetic cell separation device. Our channel consists of top and bottom layers in order to separate magnetically labeled cells in the vertical direction. Rapid separation of magnetic beads in top and bottom channel can be used in high throughput screening to monitor the efficacy and drug compounds. The experiments using the device were carried out with 4.5um magnetic bead and magnetic labeled Jurkat cell under electromagnetic field of 1.55mT. Without the magnetic field, the magnetic labeled cells started to flow from the bottom inlet and exit out of the bottom channel outlet. In the presence of the magnetic field, the cells started in bottom channel are attracted upward by the electromagnetic field and flow through the top layered. Finally, the labeled cells flow out the top channel outlet. The separation efficiencies of the multi-layer structured microfluidic channel showed more than 95%. We found that the multi-layer structured microfluidic channel was very effective in enhancing the separation. This microfluidic channel can be potentially applied to Lab-on-a-chip system because of its attractive features such as high throughput, continuous sorting, simple and rapid fabrication.

Paper Nr: 112
Title:

PAIN AND EFFICIENCY IN NEONATAL BLOOD SAMPLE SCREENINGS - New Devices for Reducing Pain and Improving Blood Sample Quality

Authors:

Bruno Wacogne, Christian Pieralli, Gonzalo Cabodevila, Lionel Pazart, Nolwenn Baron and Sandrine Marioli

Abstract: Neonatal blood sample screening is recognised as a difficult gesture and painful to the newborns. The number of detected diseases is still relatively low and depends on the country where it is performed. There is a real need for new techniques that reduce pain, facilitate the blood sampling, increase the quantity of sampled blood and improve the collection of blood of the cardboard blotter actually used. In this paper, we present systems that are currently developed in Besançon (France) in collaboration between the FEMTO-ST Institute and the University Hospital. They mainly concern micro-needles arrays and pressure free blood sampling devices. The choice of these systems has been dictated by a study of the pain that newborns feel during the gesture. The ulterior motive of this work is to improve neonatal blood sample screenings and therefore, to increase the number of screened diseases and try to generalise this technique to places where it is not yet done.

Paper Nr: 113
Title:

THE DESIGN AND FABRICATION OF IMPLANTED INTRACRANIAL PRESSURE SENSOR

Authors:

Jiang Zhuangde, Tian Bian and Zhao Yulong

Abstract: For the purpose of intracranial pressure measurement, implantable intracranial pressure monitoring sensor applying to the long-term and real-time monitoring to the intracranial pressure of the brain patients, a pressure sensor was designed based on the piezoresistive principle. The fabrication of pressure sensor adopted the technology of bulk micromachining to form the structure, and used the ion implanted technique to form resistances. The packaging was successfully fabricated by using biocompatible material, such as titanium alloy and polyurethane. The output characteristic of the sensor is measured. It was demonstrated that this pressure sensor has good performance, include linearity, accuracy and sensitivity for medical applications.

Paper Nr: 115
Title:

INERTIAL SENSOR BASED IDENTIFICATION OF HUMAN MOVEMENTS

Authors:

Ana Kuzmanic Skelin, Ivo Stancic, Josip Music, Norberto Salgado, Tamara Supuk, Tea Marasovic and Vlasta Zanchi

Abstract: The scope of this paper is the presentation of experiments which involve measurements and identification of human movements by using the inertial sensors. We describe the purpose, design and obtained results of two experiments, as well as our future plans which include the exploration of the forces acting at spine segments by measurements with inertial sensors. The first experiment implemented the method for measuring the range of motion (RoM) of head in transverse plane (Kuzmanic, 2007). It was done in the Laboratory of Biomechanics and Automatic Control – LaBACS, University of Split. In the second experiment we analyzed the standing – up movement and we used the robot assistive device for the support of human while performing the standing – up task. Measurements for purposes of this experiment were done in the Laboratory of Biomedical Engineering and Robotics, University of Ljubljana. We have proposed the new method which uses the Extended Kalman filtering for combining the data acquired from inertial sensor measurements of standing – up movement with data from the dynamic human body model (Music, 2008). Our plans regarding the next experiment are focused on the identification of the spinal load during sitting and standing, by using the inertial sensors measurement system.

Paper Nr: 117
Title:

ADAPTIVE AURICULAR ELECTRICAL STIMULATION CONTROLLED BY VITAL BIOSIGNALS - Transition from Fixed to Adaptive and Synchronized Electrical Stimulation Controlled by Heart Rate Variability and Blood Perf

Authors:

Eugenijus Kaniusas, Giedrius Varoneckas, Jozsef Constantin Szeles and Tilo Materna

Abstract: The auricular electrical punctual stimulation is usually applied for pain relief. The common application involves fixed stimulation parameters, which makes the simulation insensitive to prevailing pain or stress level and may lead to a disadvantageous over-stimulation. In order to address this issue, the given position paper presents an experimental background leading to a conceptual design of an adaptive and synchronized stimulation technique. Here parameters of the heart rate variability are used as stimulation biofeedback, while the stimulating signal is synchronized with cardiac or respiratory activity to boost stimulation effects.

Paper Nr: 118
Title:

DEVELOPMENT OF A MECHANICAL INSTRUMENT TO EVALUATE BIOMECHANICALLY THE SPINAL COLUMN IN PREGNANT WOMEN

Authors:

Cláudia Quaresma, João O’Neill, Jorge Branco and Mário Forjaz Secca

Abstract: The incidence of problems related to rachialgiae is so frequent and usual that it must be studied as if it were an epidemic and social disease (Knoplich, 2003). Instruments that evaluate the spinal column in a standing position, in a global way, are needed to attain a better insight into this problem. This work presents a completely safe instrument to assess the evolution of all the vertebra locations throughout time, in order to study the biomechanical changes in women during pregnancy. A mechanical system, registered as Vertebral Metrics, with the objective of evaluating the curvatures and lateral deviations of the spinal column in the standing position was built. A measuring part, which is the body of the instrument, and a supporting part, where the previous part is mounted, constitute the new non-invasive instrument. The measuring part consists of 17 identical adjustable mechanical blocks that allow us to reproduce the position of each vertebra of the spinal column, from the first cervical vertebra to the first sacral vertebra. Vertebral Metrics was originally planned and built to be applied to pregnant women. However, after redefining dimensions of the different parts it can be applied to any type of population, in the future.

Paper Nr: 121
Title:

DEVELOPING A PUPILLOMETER

Authors:

Carlos Neves, Gonçalo Leal and Pedro Vieira

Abstract: This project presents stable and robust optical equipment for detecting the area of the pupil and its variation on a temporal scale. An algorithm was developed to detect the pupil contour, implemented in a simple, intuitive and user friendly interface programme. Using the equipment specifically developed, measurements were taken of the area, perimeter, horizontal diameter and vertical diameter. After a statistical and comparative study, it was possible to reach conclusions regarding the general dimensions of the pupil, its variation prompted by a given stimulus and the clinical viability of the equipment concerned.

Paper Nr: 122
Title:

QUALITY ASSESSMENT IN COLONOSCOPY - New Challenges Through Computer Vision-based Systems

Authors:

Fernando Vilariño and Gerard Lacey

Abstract: The assessment of the quality of the colonoscopic interventions arises as a most relevant issue once the number and the availability of these clinical procedures are increased day by day. The use of the latest computer visionbased techniques can provide the physician with both qualitative and, most important, objectively verifiable quantitative indicators of performance. In this paper we present a study in which we propose the automatic analysis of colonoscopy video for the quality assessment of the intervention from different points of view: 1) We propose the characterization of the different parts of the colon in order to obtain metrics of the time used for navigation, portion of gut analyzed, etc. 2) We analyze the image contents in order to automatically characterize the presence of polyps. 3) We use the information obtained by and eye-tracker in order to assess the physician’s skills.

Paper Nr: 124
Title:

DEVELOPMENT OF A SLEEP MONITORING SYSTEM WITH WEARABLE VITAL SENSOR FOR HOME USE

Authors:

Kazushige Ouchi, Ken-Ichi Kameyama, Masaya Takahashi and Takuji Suzuki

Abstract: This paper describes a new sleep monitoring system for home use. The basic system consists of a wearable physiological sensor and PC software for analyzing sleep quality from user’s wrist motion and heart rate variability. Different from a conventional sleep monitoring device used in a hospital, the sensor is so small and easy-to-use that a normal person can use it at home. This means that the system is useful for a sleep specialist who wants to check a patient's daily sleep pattern. The system can also be used for self-care. We have developed a wrist-watch-shaped physiological sensor that monitors user’s wrist motion and pulse wave interval. We have also developed the algorithm for computing the quality of sleep from these physiological data on PC. Although sleep is a kind of brain activity and our sensor can not directly measure it, the output of our algorithm is close to medically evaluated sleep quality. We performed dozens of comparison experiments and found that its accuracy was about 73.5% on average. The value of the accuracy is enough for assessing a normal person’s sleep quality.

Posters
Paper Nr: 2
Title:

A WAY FOR PREDICTING AND MANAGING THE GLYCAEMIC INSTABILITY OF THE DIABETIC PATIENT

Authors:

Christiane Hespel, Farida Benmakrouha, Jean-Pierre Hespel and Mikhail V. Foursov

Abstract: We study the Bounded-Input-Bounded-Output (BIBO) stability of the system modeling the behavior “insulin delivery/glycaemia” of the diabetic patient, under continuous insulin infusion, continuous glucose monitoring, in order to point out that the patient is entering in a period of stable/unstable equilibrium. The model is a bilinear dynamical system predicting for an interval of 15 minutes, with an average error of 15%. In case of stable equilibrium, the prediction will be valid for a longer time interval, when in case of unstable equilibrium, it will leads one to reduce the time intervals. The BIBO stability is studied by computing the generating series G of the model. This series, generalization of the transfer fuction, is a tool for analyzing the stability of bilinear systems. It is a rational power series in noncommutative variables and by evaluating it, a formal expression of the output in form of iterated integrals is provided. Three cases arise: firstly, the output can be explicitly computed; secondly, the output can be bounded/unbounded if the input is bounded; thirdly, no conclusion seems available about the BIBO stability by using G. We propose a stabilizing constant input h by studying the univariate series Gh.

Paper Nr: 24
Title:

DEVICE FOR SYNCHRONIZED ROTATION

Authors:

Rajiv Dubey, Rufael Berhane and Shuh Jing Ying

Abstract: This device makes two shafts rotating in synchronized angular displacement. The sensors are potentiometers. The device is designed for use in a driving simulator. The first shaft is connected to a steering wheel and controlled by a driver so this shaft is the master, the second shaft is connected to the computer software that displays the surrounding sceneries, therefore this shaft is the follower. The two shafts must be rotated in synchronized mode and accurately. Major components in this device are operational amplifiers, NAND gates, power MOFET and relays. Details in design and manufacturing are reported in this paper. This device may be used for any place that requires two shafts rotating synchronically.

Paper Nr: 27
Title:

HAND-HELD LUMINOMETER WITH ECL-BASED BIOSENSOR FOR LACTATE DETERMINATION

Authors:

A. J. Palma, A. Martínez-Olmos, J. Ballesta-Claver, L. F. Capitan-Vallvey and M. C. Valencia-Miron

Abstract: A new hand-held luminometer for electrochemiluminescence (ECL)-based one-shot biosensor for lactate is described. The lactate recognition system is based on lactate oxidase and the transduction system consists of luminol, all reagents immobilized in a Methocel membrane. The measurement of ECL from a screenprinted electrode by a portable instrument designed and developed by the authors makes it possible to determine lactate concentration. The compositions of the membrane and reaction conditions have been optimized to obtain adequate sensitivity. The one-shot biosensor responds to lactate rapidly, with the typical ECL acquisition time being 3 min, with a linearized dependence whose dynamic range was from 9·10-6 to 2·10-3 M, a detection limit of 2.4·10-6 M and a sensor-to-sensor reproducibility (relative standard deviation RSD) around 10 % at the medium level of the range. The performance of the ECL one-shot biosensor and portable instrument was tested for the non invasive analysis of lactate in saliva, validating the results against a reference procedure.

Paper Nr: 33
Title:

SELECTIVE OSTEOBLASTIC CELL MICRO-ARRAYS ON DIAMOND FILMS

Authors:

Alexander Kromka, Bohuslav Rezek, Egor Ukraintsev, Lenka Michalíková and Marie Kalbacova

Abstract: Unique combination of chemical and biocompatible properties with semiconducting properties makes diamond an attractive material for merging solid state and biological systems. Microscopic chemical patterning of diamond films by hydrogen and oxygen surface atoms is used for self-assembly of human osteoblastic cells into micro-arrays. The cell adhesion and assembly on the diamond is further controlled and optimized by cell and protein (fetal bovine serum - FBS) concentration. The cells are characterized by fluorescence microscopy of actin fibers and nuclei. The protein adsorption is studied by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The cells are arranged into arrays on O-terminated patterns. The best cell selectivity is achieved for the lowest cell concentrations of 2500 cells/cm2. Higher cell concentrations enable to colonize unfavorable H-terminated regions due to mutual cell communication. Based on AFM, the proteins are present on both H- and O-terminated surfaces, however, pronounced differences in the thickness, surface roughness, morphology, and phase images indicate different conformation of the proteins and hence the cell selectivity. There is no cell selectivity when no protein is supplemented in the medium. These results may be applicable in tissue engineering, implants, bio-electronics, and biotechnology in general.

Paper Nr: 48
Title:

ON-DETECTOR ELECTRONICS OF THE CLEAR PEM SCANNER

Authors:

A. Rivetti, A. Trindade, B. Carriço, C. Leong, C. Ortigão, C. S. Ferreira, E. Albuquerque, F. Gonçalves, F. Piedade, I. C. Teixeira, J. Varela, J. Godinho, J. C. Silva, J. F. Pinheiro, J. P. Teixeira, M. Ferreira, M. M. Silva, P. Rodrigues, P. Neves, P. Relvas, P. Lousã, P. Machado, R. Moura, R. Bugalho and V. Bexiga

Abstract: A Portuguese consortium has developed a PET scanner dedicated to breast cancer detection (Clear-PEM scanner) within the framework of the international Crystal Clear Collaboration at CERN. In the construction of this scanner several challenges have been addressed, from the design of the photon’s detector, front-end electronics and data acquisition systems up to the image reconstruction algorithms. In this paper we describe the development of the electronics in the detector heads needed to read-out and filter the data from 12288 detector channels, as well as to provide regulated high-voltages, low voltage power and control signals, and also to monitor the environment in the detector heads. The scanner is currently in its final phase of integration and will soon be installed in the department of Nuclear Medicine of Hospital Garcia de Orta and Instituto Português de Oncologia (Porto) were clinical trials will be conducted.

Paper Nr: 51
Title:

HARDWARE IMPLEMENTATION FOR EDGE DETECTION IN CDNA MICROARRAY IMAGES

Authors:

Albert Fazakas, Bogdan Belean and Monica Borda

Abstract: The present paper proposes hardware implementation strategies for cDNA microarray image processing in order to overcome the main disadvantage introduced by the existing computational tools, the increased processing time. A hardware implementation of the Canny edge detection algorithm for microarray spots is described. The implementation takes advantage of spatial and temporal parallelism offered by FPGA technology. Results of the hardware implementation which prove time and cost efficiency are presented.

Paper Nr: 52
Title:

NEW FAST TRAINING ALGORITHM SUITABLE FOR HARDWARE KOHONEN NEURAL NETWORKS DESIGNED FOR ANALYSIS OF BIOMEDICAL SIGNALS

Authors:

Marta Kolasa and Rafał Długosz

Abstract: A new optimized algorithm for the learning process suitable for hardware implemented Winner Takes Most Kohonen Neural Network (KNN) has been proposed in the paper. In networks of this type a neighborhood mechanism is used to improve the convergence properties of the network by decreasing the quantization error. The proposed technique bases on the observation that the quantization error does not decrease monotonically during the learning process but there are some ‘activity’ phases, in which this error decreases very fast and then the ‘stagnation’ phases, in which the error does not decrease. The stagnation phases usually are much longer than the activity phases, which in practice means that the network makes a progress in training only in short periods of the learning process. The proposed technique using a set of linear and nonlinear filters detects the activity phases and controls the neighborhood R in such a way to shorten the stagnation phases. As a result, the learning process may be 16 times faster than in the classic approach, in which the radius R decreases linearly. The intended application of the proposed solution will be in Wireless Body Sensor Networks (WBSN) in classification and analysis of the EMG and the ECG biomedical signals.

Paper Nr: 61
Title:

WRIST-WORN FALL DETECTION DEVICE - Development and Preliminary Evaluation

Authors:

Leopoldo Rossini and Mattia Bertschi

Abstract: Falls are the most important cause of accidents for elderly people and often result in serious physical and psychological consequences. The rapid growth of the elderly population increases the magnitude of the problem as well as the generated costs. In order to take care of old people living by themselves or in care centres and to reduce the consequences of a fall, various technological solutions have been studied, however none led to a commercial product fulfilling user requirements. In this work we present an automatic fall detector in the form of a wrist watch which could lead to better life conditions for the elderly. Our device implements functionalities such as wireless communication, automatic fall detection, manual alarm triggering, data storage, and simple user interface. Even though the wrist is probably the most difficult measurement location on the body to discern a fall event, the proposed detection algorithm shows encouraging results (90% sensitivity, 97% specificity) with the signals of our database.

Paper Nr: 66
Title:

A NEW LINEAR ARRAY IMAGING SYSTEM OF ELECTRICAL AND ULTRASONIC PROPERTIES IN A LIVING BODY

Authors:

Akira Kimoto, Katsunori Shida and Yuuta Taninaka

Abstract: In this paper, a new linear array imaging system of ultrasonic and electrical properties in the living body is proposed. The proposed imaging system measures not only the ultrasonic property of the living body using the linear arrayed piezoelectric ceramic transducers, but also the electrical property using the surface electrodes of each piezoelectric ceramic transducer. From these data, ultrasonic and electrical properties in the same object space are simultaneously reconstructed. In the experiment, propagation time and electrical voltage of the living body model are measured by the proposed imaging system based on linear arrayed eight piezoelectric ceramic transducers. Ultrasonic and electrical properties are reconstructed from the measurement values. It was found that the ultrasonic and electrical properties in the same space could be reconstructed by the proposed imaging system. Therefore, it is suggested that the proposed imaging system has potential for application although there are some problems that must be solved.

Paper Nr: 71
Title:

MODELLING OF SAW BIOSENSORS

Authors:

Dejan Tošić, Marija Hribšek, Slavica Ristić and Zdravko Živković

Abstract: New approach in surface acoustic wave (SAW) biosensor’s modelling is presented. Biosensor is modelled as a three port network. The model is general and can be used also in the case of transponder type of sensor. The closed form solutions for transfer function and input admittance at the electrical port of SAW devices with uniform transducers based on complex equivalent circuit are presented. Transfer function and input admittance in two different cases are calculated and compared with the experimental results showing very close agreement.

Paper Nr: 72
Title:

A WIRELESS EEG ACQUISITION SYSTEM WITH THERMOELECTRIC SCAVENGING MICRODEVICE

Authors:

J. H. Correia, J. P. Carmo, L. M. Goncalves and R. P. Rocha

Abstract: This paper presents a wireless EEG acquisition system powered by a thermoelectric energy scavenger, which was optimised to convert the small thermal power available in the human-body. The wireless EEG system is composed with up to four EEG electrodes. A radio frequency (RF) transceiver for operation in the 2.4 GHz ISM band, was optimised and fabricated in the UMC RF 0.18 µm CMOS process. The receiver has a sensitivity of -60 dBm and consumes 6.3 mW from a 1.8 V supply. The transmitter delivers an output power of 0 dBm with a power consumption of 11.2 mW. Because listening and emitting are power-intensive activities, innovative topics concerning efficient power management was taken into account during the design of the RF CMOS transceiver.

Paper Nr: 73
Title:

A NOVEL MOBILE MONITORING SYSTEM FOR FAST AND AUTOMATED BACTERIA DETECTION IN WATER

Authors:

Alois Friedberger, Andreas Helwig, Christoph Heller, Florian Klettner, Gerhard Müller, Hans Wolf, Karl Neumeier, Leonhard Meixner, Petra Lindner, Ramona Molz and Ulrich Reidt

Abstract: Standard detection methods for viable bacteria in potable water are time consuming due to a required cultivation step. Fast and automated detection of water borne microorganisms with high sensitivity and selectivity is still a challenge. We report on a novel biosensor using micromechanical filters with nano sized pores to capture and enrich bacteria on the filter surface and subsequent detection using fluorescent probes. The whole process is fully automated by integrating the sieves into a fluidic system together with a high performance fluorescence detector. The results show the effective retention of bacteria on the filter surface, which are then accessible for different staining procedures. As an example, we use special fluorescent dyes that bind to or intercalate in the DNA molecules of the bacteria. After detection, the microfilters undergo cleaning and conditioning steps to be ready for the next measurement.

Paper Nr: 74
Title:

CONTROL OF CELL ADHESION AND FUNCTIONS USING SELF-ORGANIZED HONEY COMB-PATTERNED POLYMER FILMS

Authors:

Akinori Tsuruma, Masaru Tanaka, Masatsugu Shimomura and Sadaaki Yamamoto

Abstract: The design of nano- and microstructures based on self-organization is a key area of research in the search for new biomaterials and biodevices, and such structures have a variety of potential applications in tissue engineering scaffolds and medical implants. 3D scaffolds of appropriate pore size and porosities and with interconnected pores are required to facilitate cell adhesion, proliferation, differentiation, and eventual tissue regeneration in a natural manner. We have reported the honeycomb-patterned polymer film with highly regular pores that is formed by self-organization. The honeycomb films exerted a strong influence on cell morphology, proliferation, cytoskeleton, focal adhesion, and ECM production profiles. Our studies demonstrated that the neural stem / progenitor cells morphology, proliferation, and differentiation are controlled by the pore size of the honeycomb film. It is expected that the honeycomb films will have great potentials as biomaterials for tissue regeneration in a growth factor free proliferation process of stem cells.

Paper Nr: 79
Title:

ACOUSTIC THERMOAGITATION BASED ON PIEZOELECTRIC β-PVDF POLYMER FILMS - Potential Evaluation in Lab-on-a-Chip Applications

Authors:

G. Minas, G. Botelho, J. Serrado Nunes, L. Rebouta, P. Martins, S. Lanceros-Méndez and V. F. Cardoso

Abstract: This paper describes a lab on a chip device with acoustic thermoagitation based on a piezoelectric β-PVDF polymer. The device is used for testing and monitoring biochemical parameters in biological fluids using optical absorption spectrophotometry. Experimental results regarding the influence of the electrical signal amplitude and frequency applied for the generation of acoustic thermoagitation is presented. The individual contribution of the heating and the microagitation provided by the actuation of the piezoelectric film for the fluids mixture was determined. The paper is completed with a study of the β-PVDF degradation with transparent conductive electrodes, ITO and AZO, when placed in contact with uric acid fluids. The final goal of using this technique is the improvement of mixing and reaction time without interfering with biochemical reactions and analytical measurements.

Paper Nr: 80
Title:

CONTACT LESS RADIO-FREQUENCIES BIOSENSOR FOR BIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS ANALYSIS

Authors:

D. Dubuc, H. Toshiyoshi, H. Fujita, K. Grenier and M. Kumemura

Abstract: This paper presents a biosensor, which both takes benefits from RF/microwave detection scheme for contactless ability and from microtechnologies fabrication potentialities for massive integration of sensors into lab on chip. The proposed sensor is based on transmission line (which is the basis element of numerous microwave circuits) associated with a biological micro volume in interaction with electrical microwave fields. Thanks to the transmission characteristic of the line, we then detect the presence of DNA inside its nominal liquid environment with a measured sensitivity compatible with RF/microwave measurements capabilities. The results then demonstrated the potentialities of this approach for the analysis of biological parameters of ‘in vitro’ biological substance using microsystem integration facilities.

Paper Nr: 86
Title:

WEARABLE TECHNOLOGY - Development of Polypyrrole Textile Electrodes for Electromyography

Authors:

C. Gaiolas, J. Lucas, N. Reis, P. Araújo, R. Miguel and S. Rodrigues

Abstract: Following the work already done, in particular the “textile arm" by the authors, incorporating metallic filaments in the fabric during the weaving process with the aim of capturing surface electromyography signals, we concluded that there was a need to maximise the area of contact with skin to improve the obtained electrodes signals. The main objective of this work is the development of electrodes embedded into textile materials able to capture electromyography signals, using the polypyrrole conducting polymer, both in coating of electrodes directly into the textile fabric and preparing a conductor yarn with this polymer to obtain a knit structure. This work allowed developing wearable technology textile structures for muscle activity monitoring, through the measurement of electromyography signals, keeping simultaneously comfort and easy-care textile characteristics. The signals obtained with this approach had a good definition compared with commercial electrodes and with the great advantage of this procedure can be applied in industrial production.

Paper Nr: 89
Title:

A SCALABLE AND OPEN SOURCE LINEAR POSITIONING SYSTEM CONTROLLER

Authors:

A. J. A. Fernandes, C. A. Teixeira, M. C. Medeiros and M. Graça Ruano

Abstract: This paper is on the implementation of a dual axis positioning system controller. The system was designed to be used for space-dependent ultrasound signal acquisition problems, such as pressure field mapping. The work developed can be grouped in two main subjects: hardware and software. Each axis includes one stepper motor connected to a driver circuit, which is then connected to a processing unit. The graphical user interface is simple and clear for the user. The system resolution was computed as 127um with an accuracy of 2.44um. Although the target application is ultrasound signal acquisition, the controller can be applied to other devices that has up to four stepper motors. The application was developed as an open source software, thus it can be used or changed to fit different purposes.

Paper Nr: 91
Title:

DESIGN OF A BIO-INSPIRED WEARABLE EXOSKELETON FOR APPLICATIONS IN ROBOTICS

Authors:

Bertold Bongardt, Frank Kirchner, Jan Albiez and Michele Folgheraiter

Abstract: In this paper we explain the methodology we adopted to design the kinematics structure of a multi-contact point haptic interface. We based our concept on the analysis of the human arm anatomy and kinematics with the intend to synthesize a system that will be able to interface with the human limb in a very natural way. We proposed a simplified kinematic model of the human arm using a notation coming from the robotics field. To find out the best kinematics architecture we employed real movement data, measured from a human subject, and integrated them with the kinematic model of the exoskeleton. This allow us to test the system before its construction and to formalize specific requirements. We also implemented and tested a first passive version of the shoulder joint.

Paper Nr: 93
Title:

EXTENDED HEALTH VISIBILITY IN THE HOSPITAL ENVIRONMENT

Authors:

H. Fernández López, J. A. Afonso, J. H. Correia and Ricardo Simões

Abstract: Wireless sensor networks can help healthcare providers enhance patient monitoring and communication capabilities. This paper describes the present state of the development of a vital signal monitoring network applied to the hospital environment. The proposed network is based on non-obstructive sensors able to communicate through a low power wireless sensor network based on the ZigBee protocol. This network enables continuous patient monitoring, creating entirely new mechanisms for providing healthcare under a plethora of cases (e.g. post-op, continuous care, and chronic diseases). The main advantages of this system include increased patient mobility, faster detection of potential problems, real-time feedback to caregivers and patients, and faster response to emergency situations.

Paper Nr: 119
Title:

MICROFLUIDIC CELL STIMULATOR USING BEAD IMPACT

Authors:

Hyo-Il Jung, Hyung-Joon Kim, Min-Suk Park, Tae-Jin Kim and Young-Hun Kim

Abstract: Recently many researchers are focused on cell stimulation regarding observation of cells to specific stimulation factors. We introduce new mechanical stimulation method using micro beads without any chemical reagents. CPAE (calf pulmonary artery endothelial cell) were cultured in PDMS (polydimethylsiloxane) microfluidic device. After starvation process, sterilized 10um glass beads were rolled by only gravitational force for 10 minute. To find optimal stimulation time, 16 devices were made by PDMS and each device was slanted every hour. Results show that cell exposed under micro bead stimulation perform at a higher growth rate than normal conditions and 1 hour stimulation time represents more effective than other stimulation times. This new cell stimulation method will be able to help make artificial organ such as blood vessels in the future.

Paper Nr: 120
Title:

A LOW-COST EEG STAND-ALONE DEVICE FOR BRAIN COMPUTER INTERFACE

Authors:

Alexandre Ribeiro, Ana Lopes, António Sirgado, Gabriel Pires, João Aperta, Jorge Guilherme, Pedro Correia and Urbano Nunes

Abstract: This paper describes the ongoing development and design of a portable and stand-alone EEG device to be used as a Brain Computer Interface (BCI) for wheelchair steering. The overall system comprises the EEG (electroencephalogram) amplifier, data acquisition, communications and stimuli generator. The main attractive feature of this system is its stand-alone operation which makes it independent of a computer for signal processing and visual stimuli presentation. Preliminary results obtained from experiments exploring alpha rhythms and steady state visual evoked potentials attest the overall functionality and robustness of the system.