BIODEVICES 2011 Abstracts


Full Papers
Paper Nr: 9
Title:

URINE OUTPUT MONITORING - A Simple and Reliable Device for Monitoring Critical Patients’ Urine Output

Authors:

Abraham Otero, Teodor Akinfiev and Andrey Apalkov

Abstract: Currently, critical care units are equipped with sophisticated commercial monitoring devices capable of sensing most of the patient’ physiological parameters, and of automatically supervising whether the values of the parameters lie within a preestablished range set by the clinician. The automation of these tasks has discharged the healthcare staff of a considerable workload. It also avoids human errors, which are common in repetitive and monotonous tasks. In all likelihood, urine output is the most relevant physiological parameter that has yet to be sensed or supervised automatically. This paper presents a patent-pending device capable of sensing and supervising urine output. The device uses reed switches that are activated by a magnet that is attached to a float in order to measure the amount of urine collected in two containers. When a container fills, it is emptied automatically using a siphon mechanism and urine begins to collect again. An electronic unit sends the state of the reed switches via Bluethooth to a PC. From this information, the PC calculates the urine output and supervises the achievement of therapeutic goals. The end result is a fully automated, simple, inexpensive and accurate urine meter.

Paper Nr: 13
Title:

DESIGN OF A PRESSURE SENSOR FOR MONITORING OF POST-ENDOVASCULAR ANEURYSM REPAIR

Authors:

A. T. Sepúlveda, A. J. Pontes, J. C. Viana, L. A. Rocha, Isa C. T. Santos and F. Fachin

Abstract: This paper introduces the design and fabrication process of a flexible pressure sensor for monitoring post-endovascular aneurysm repairs (EVAR). Biocompatible flexible PDMS membranes with embedded aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with a conductivity of 11 S.m-1 and elastic modulus of 2 MPa are used to build a LC network for passive telemetry readout-out. The pressure sensor has a modelled sensitivity 14fF/mmHg for a pressure range between 6-47 mmHg, in agreement with the required application. The pressure sensor, with a 250 µm thickness and total area of 1 cm2, will be contained within the stent-graft and used to measure the pressure inside the aneurysm sac to detect complications related to the EVAR procedure.

Paper Nr: 14
Title:

PORTABLE DOSIMETER WITH MOSFET SENSOR FOR RADIOTHERAPY MONITORING

Authors:

M. A. Carvajal, J. Banqueri, A. J. Palma and A. M. Lallena

Abstract: A portable dosimeter based on unbiased MOSFET sensor is presented. Its main characteristics are an extended linearity range and a notable thermal drift reduction using a unique p-channel MOSFET (pMOS) unbiased during the irradiation period, allowing the location of the sensor without wires for patient comfort and easy-to-use. Both features have been obtained with novel procedures of dose reading and signal processing applied to low-cost commercial pMOS. In this work, a full description of the electronics of the dosimetry system and the signal processing techniques are drawn. The system has been tested with photons from 60Co and the complete technical specifications have been obtained. Among them, we can emphasize: i) dose sensitivity of around 25 mV/Gy; ii) linearity range of more than 50 Gy, with intermediate calibration each 15 Gy, for each sensor; iii) thermal drift below 3 mGy/ºC; iv) resolution below 1cGy; and v) total uncertainty of ± 9 mGy in the temperature range from 19 ºC to 36 ºC . We believe that the proposed dosimeter could be a novel and feasible low-cost alternative to previous commercial dosimetry systems for radiotherapy monitoring in clinical applications.

Paper Nr: 30
Title:

AN ADAPTIVE SINGLE FREQUENCY PHASE VOCODER FOR LOW-POWER HEART RATE DETECTION - Development of a Fast and Low-power Heart Rate Estimation Algorithm for Mobile Phone Applications

Authors:

Walter Karlen, Guy Dumont and Chris Petersen

Abstract: Mobile phones can be used as a platform for clinical decision making in resource-poor and remote areas. Their limited battery and computational resources, however, demand efficient and low-power algorithms. We present a new algorithm for the fast and economical estimation of heart rate (HR) from the photoplethysmogram (PPG) recorded with a pulse oximeter connected to a mobile phone. The new method estimates the HR frequency by adaptively modeling the PPG wave with a sine function using a modified phase vocoder. The obtained wave is also used as an envelope for the detection of peaks in the PPG signal. HR is either computed using the vocoder center frequency or the peak intervals in a histogram. Experiments on a mobile device show comparable speed performance with other time domain algorithms. Preliminary tests show that the HR computed from the vocoder center frequency is robust to Noise in the PPG. The instantaneous HR calculated with the vocoder peak detection method was more sensitive to short-term HR variations than the vocoder center frequency method. These results point to further developments using a combination of both HR estimation methods that will enable the robust implementation of adaptive phase vocoders into mobile phone applications.

Paper Nr: 35
Title:

AN INTEGRATED MULTI-CHANNEL SYSTEM FOR BIOMEDICAL SIGNAL ACQUISITION

Authors:

Jakob M. Tomasik, Wjatscheslaw Galjan and Kristian M. Hafkemeyer

Abstract: A CMOS configurable system-on-chip (SoC) for biomedical signal acquisition is described. The SoC is composed of 10 channels, each channel including a programmable analog front-end (AFE) and a 20 bit analog-to-digital converter (ADC). The digitized signals are read out via a high-speed serial communication bus. The AFE includes a common-mode rejection ratio (CMRR) calibration circuitry resulting in a CMRR of more than 80 dB and an active DC-suppression circuitry giving the DC-coupled instrumentation amplifier the possibility to tolerate DC-offsets of up to ±1 V for a power supply voltage of 3.3 V. In low-noise mode the AFE achieves an input referred noise of less than 50 nVrms for EEG application (0.5-70 Hz) and the power consumption of a channel including AFE and ADC is less than 5 mW in low-power mode. A prototype has been fabricated in a 0.35 µm CMOS process.

Paper Nr: 43
Title:

ADAPTIVE HUMAN TREMOR ASSESSMENT AND ATTENUATION - Six Degree-of-Freedom Motion Analysis Utilizing Wavelets

Authors:

Wesley J. E. Teskey

Abstract: The use of a weighted-frequency Fourier linear combiner (WFLC) algorithm for assessment and attenuation of movement disorder tremor (including essential tremor and Parkinson’s tremor) is quite prevalent; indeed, this technique is likely the most popular for such applications. The novel work presented here applies this technique to accelerometer and gyroscope data describing six degree-of-freedom motion (three translational and three rotational degrees-of-freedom). Most analysis of tremor is based on observation of generally one to three degrees-of-freedom of motion. Six degree-of-freedom motion analysis is more difficult to accomplish because of the complexity of capturing such a large amount of motion data. As well, processing accelerometer and gyroscope data to yield six degree-of-freedom motion generally involves the use of a Kalman smoother (necessary because of signal noise and drift) to ensure that accelerometer signals are correctly compensated for the influence of gravity. After data are processed using a Kalman smoother and the WFLC algorithm is applied, results are interpreted using wavelet frequency spectrum analysis to determine the frequency content before and after processing the data. Results show that the WFLC algorithm can be successfully applied to all six degrees-of-freedom of motion to largely remove tremor.

Paper Nr: 65
Title:

APPLICATION OF A NOVEL PID AUTO-TUNER TO A LUNG FUNCTION TESTING DEVICE

Authors:

Andres Hernandez

Abstract: The paper presents a closed loop approach for the lung function tests of forced oscillation technique. In this method it is important to ensure that the desired excitation signal to be applied at the patient’s mouth will be delivered by the lung function testing device, without introducing distortions and nonlinear effects. A novel PID auto-tuner is applied in an initial phase of the investigation, without the patient, to verify whether the closed loop control can be implemented. The results are promising, showing that the auto-tuner is able to perform well and ensure the desired signal at the output of the device, within safety limits for the control effort (air flow).

Paper Nr: 74
Title:

A WIRELESS BODY-WEARABLE SENSOR SYSTEM FOR DESIGNING PHYSICALLY INTERACTIVE VIDEO GAMES

Authors:

Bobak Mortazavi, Hagop Hagopian and Jonathan Wodbridge

Abstract: This paper presents a novel wireless body-wearable sensor system to control video games, making the user more active while gaming. Our system uses data gathered from accelerometers and pressure sensors worn by the player, to detect specific movements, which are used as in-game motion controls. Our system is designed to detect different types of motions, and with proper integration into any game, will ensure that the player will constantly remain active. To demonstrate, our system was adapted to a popular soccer game that uses the player’s various leg motions as replacements for keyboard strokes. The result is a higher heart rate and calorie burn for the user, making the overall experience significantly healthier and more active than analogous sedentary video games.

Paper Nr: 84
Title:

A NEW METHOD FOR DETECTION OF TOTAL HIP REPLACEMENT LOOSENING - Development and First Results of a Novel Mechano-acoustical Sensor

Authors:

Cathérine Ruther, Hartmut Ewald, Wolfram Mittelmeier and Daniel Kluess

Abstract: Currently applied diagnostic methods for loosening of total hip replacements often result in imprecise identification of implant fixation and in the worst case unnecessary revision surgery. Developed sensors integrated in implants require adequate energy supply, which in most cases is achieved by inductive coupling and complex data telemetry. In order to avoid a telemetric apparatus, we developed a passive concept of a novel in vivo method to improve diagnostic investigations of total hip replacement loosening. A mechano-acoustical sensor, attached on small membranes inside the femoral hip stem, is proposed and enables osseous anchorage detection. The sensor is excited and detected by extracorporeal coils. First functional models show significant differences between different material layers located at the membrane. The novel in vivo sensor system has a promising potential to detect implant loosening.

Paper Nr: 95
Title:

OPTIMUM CORE-WINDING RATIO FOR A RECEIVER COIL IN A BIOMEDICAL INDUCTIVE POWER SYSTEM

Authors:

Furqan Noor and Maeve Duffy

Abstract: The relation of the structure of a cylindrical coil used on the receiver side of an inductive power system to the level of power that can be delivered is investigated. It is found that for a given fixed receiver coil size, an optimum design can be defined in which the cross sectional area of the core equals that of the winding. Results of circuit simulation, Finite Element Analysis and measurements of five test coils are presented to verify the proposed theory for the case of coils having 5 mm diameter and 10 mm length.

Paper Nr: 102
Title:

WIMU: WEARABLE INERTIAL MONITORING UNIT - A MEMS-based Device for Swimming Performance Analysis

Authors:

Ana S. Silva and Antonio J. Salazar

Abstract: Advances in sensor technology, electronic textile integration, and integrated circuits have introduced a paradigm shift in the way most researchers approach signal monitoring. In recent years, devices such as body sensor networks (BSN) allow for direct on-body physiological and biomechanical parameters measurements. Such technology allows for a more in depth analysis of an athlete’s performance, without affecting the results due to awkward wires or uncomfortable carry-on devices. Miniaturization and other achievements allow a more seamless interaction with the individual, permitting a more natural behaviour during the monitoring session. The project BIOSWIM (Body Interface System based on Wearable Integration Monitorization) is a joint multidisciplinary effort of a number of Portuguese universities which seeks a pervasive monitoring solution for performance, physiological and biomechanical signals from a swimmer under normal training conditions. In order to achieve such an undertaking a swimsuit prototype was developed with truly integrated EKG textile sensors; which will work in conjunction with a wearable inertial monitoring unit (WIMU) and a wearable chemical monitoring unit. This article focuses on the WIMU, which serves as the biomechanical data processing unit of the system.

Short Papers
Paper Nr: 1
Title:

AXISYMMETRIC AND ASYMMETRIC BEHAVIORS OF A RED BLOOD CELL IN CAPILLARIES

Authors:

Ting Ye and Hua Li

Abstract: The axisymmetric and asymmetric behaviours of a red blood cell (RBC) in capillaries are investigated numerically by developing a two-fluid model, in which the membrane force is considered to describe the RBC deformation. The quantitative validations with the experimental and theoretical results are provided, and good agreements are found in the deformation index and deformed RBC shapes. The present results show that the RBC experiences the axisymmetric motion if the membrane force is balanced between the RBC cusps, otherwise the asymmetric motion occurs. The characteristic parachute shape of deformed RBC is observed in the axisymmetric motion, while the tank-treading motion of RBC membrane is generated in the asymmetric motion. As the capillary diameter increases, the decrease in RBC length is accompanied by an increase in RBC width.

Paper Nr: 4
Title:

DETECTION OF THE CYTOMEGALOVIRUS - A Mobile Device and a Disposable Cartridge for Detection at the Patient's Bed

Authors:

Thomas Mangeat, Hichem Benalia, Christian Pieralli, Alain Rouleau, Wilfrid Boireau, Bruno Wacogne, Jean-Sébastien Guerrini, Alain Coaquette and Georges Herbein

Abstract: Recently, cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection has become the most frequent cause of congenital infections. The French Health Authority (HAS) is urging a diagnosis at birth for newborns. Since no screening device is commercially available, a consortium has been established to set-up an original device. It consists of a disposable cartridge containing the biological sample and the reactive liquids required for immunofluorescencence detection on a functionalized surface. It also consists of a mobile reader used to drive the fluids onto the biosensor and to ensure the optical measurement. Up to now, positive and negative samples can be discriminated with a fluorescence intensity ratio of 3.

Paper Nr: 8
Title:

DETECTION OF GLYCATED HEMOGLOBIN USING 3-AMINOPHENYLBORONIC ACID MODIFIED GRAPHENE OXIDE

Authors:

Siva Rama Krishna V., Bharadwaj Amrutur and Navakanta Bhat

Abstract: This paper presents the chemical synthesis of 3-Aminophenylboronic acid (APBA) modified graphene oxide (GO) and its application to the electrochemical detection of glycated hemoglobin (GHb). The compound (GO-APBA) was synthesized by forming an amide linkage between the amino group (-NH2) of APBA and the carboxylic group (-COOH) of GO. The compound was characterized using IR spectroscopy. Detection of GHb was carried out using Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopic (EIS) measurements with GO-APBA modified glassy carbon electrode as the working electrode.

Paper Nr: 10
Title:

NOVEL PATTERNING TECHNOLOGY USING AIR-PRESSURE DISPENSER FOR FABRICATING MICRO-FLUIDIC DEVICES

Authors:

Toshiyuki Horiuchi, Shinichiro Ohtsuka and Miyu Ozaki

Abstract: A novel method was developed to easily fabricate micro-fluidic devices with a low cost. It will be especially useful at preliminary research stages. In the new method, inexpensive commercial air-pressure dispenser was used. Adopting originally developed “wire nozzles”, it was verified that fine resist patterns with widths down to 50 μm were successfully delineated. However, because patterns have to be delineated connecting simple line patterns, it was difficult to delineate trench or hole patterns by painting out a large area. Moreover, sidewalls of the delineated patterns were not sharp. For this reason, easy image-reverse process was thought out. In the novel process, opaque liquid patterns were delineated using the dispenser on a thick negative resist film coated on a substrate, and the resist film was exposed to flood exposure light. As a result, the resist was sensitized except under the opaque liquid patterns. Therefore, trench or hole patterns corresponding to the opaque liquid pattern shapes were obtained after developing the resist. Replicated thick resist patterns have sharply-cut sidewalls, and will be durable for micro-fluidic paths or vessels of bio-devices.

Paper Nr: 11
Title:

A PLANT MATERIAL-BASED AIR PURIFICATION SYSTEM FOR SWINE ODOUR REDUCTION

Authors:

Xuezhi Zhou

Abstract: Environmental odour not only serves as a warning of potential health risks, but the odour sensation themselves can also cause health symptoms , such as headaches, nausea, sore throat, cough, chest tightness, nasal congestion, shortness of breath, stress, drowsiness, asthma, chronic bronchitis, and alterations in mood. Swine odour consists of a mixture of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), hydrogen sulphide, ammonia as well as particulates which adsorbed odourous compounds. A plant material-based air purification (PMAP) system was evaluated for odour reduction in this study. The PMAP consisted of a mixture of plant materials which emit volatiles. Measurement was performed in two identical plastic boxes using pig manure, hydrogen sulphide and ammonia gases as odourous source. The PMAP device was placed in only one of the boxes. The results showed that PMAP reduced the intensity of swine odour by at least 50%, the concentration of hydrogen sulphide from 20 ppm to 0.2 ppm for a pure hydrogen sulphide source and from 0.4 to 0.02 ppm for a swine manure source. Similarly, the PMAP reduced ammonia concentration from 29 to near 0 ppm for a pure ammonia source and from 38 to 10 ppm for the swine manure source.

Paper Nr: 15
Title:

OPTIMIZATION OF ELECTRIC FIELD FREQUENCY ON DIELECTROPHORETIC IMPEDANCE MEASUREMENT METHOD FOR ORAL BACTERIA DETECTION

Authors:

Ryo Hamada and Junya Suehiro

Abstract: A simple and rapid bacteria detection device for on-site evaluation of oral hygiene in hospitals and clinics was demonstrated. The developed device utilizes dielectrophoretic impedance measurement (DEPIM) method. We integrated a micro electrode chip on which bacteria were captured by dielectrophoresis (DEP), an AC voltage source to induce DEP force, and an impedance measurement circuit to a portable instrument that enables rapid and automated oral bacterial inspection in hospitals and clinics. Special considerations have been made on effects of high electrical conductivity of oral samples on DEP force and DEPIM results. It was shown experimentally and theoretically that using a higher electric field frequency for the DEP bacteria trap and the impedance measurement could realize DEPIM application to bacteria inspection from oral samples with higher conductivity. Based on these investigations, we optimized the frequency condition of the DEPIM suitable for inspecting an oral sample along with the design and development of a portable DEPIM apparatus for on-site inspection of oral bacteria.

Paper Nr: 16
Title:

BIOELECTRIC ACTIVITY RECORDING BASED ON A SINGLE ELECTRODE FOR USE ON WEARABLE DEVICES

Authors:

M. S. Fernandes and C. M. Pereira

Abstract: Wearable devices are used to unobtrusively record several physiological signals. Bioelectric signals are one of the most important variables monitored. Despite the available techniques, including capacitive coupling, it is still lacking a contactless solution that can be integrated into wearable devices. We propose a new approach where an instrumentation amplifier is directly driven by a bioelectric signal. In this way, the voltage drop on the capacitive electrodes is avoided. In this paper we show the proof of concept, and results are presented to show how to record an Electrocardiogram (ECG) using this new approach. Measurements were made using a high-impedance instrumentation amplifier. Results have shown that our approach is viable for bioelectric signal detection using contactless methods.

Paper Nr: 21
Title:

MRI-INDUCED SAR ON PACEMAKER LEADS - Numerical Simulations on Three Human Phantoms

Authors:

Eugenio Mattei, Giovanni Calcagnini and Michele Triventi

Abstract: Numerical simulations were performed to evaluate the Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) induced at the tip of a pacemaker (PM) implant by the 64 MHz radiofrequency (RF) field used in 1.5T Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) procedures. The analysis was performed by using a commercial FDTD software (SEMCAD X, SPEAG, Switzerland) and aimed at the evaluation of the impact that the patient ‘s morphology has on the induced local SAR at the implant tip. In particular three human phantoms were studied: a 34-year old man model, a 26-year old woman, and a 6-year old boy. The three phantoms reproduce more than 70 tissues of the human body with a resolution of 1 mm. Inside each phantoms, realistic implant configurations were modelled, considering both left and right pectoral implants, and atrial and ventricular stimulations. The local SAR values at the lead tip was compared for the three phantoms and sensible differences were observed: with a RF excitation set to produce an whole-body average SAR of 2 W/kg without any implants, local SAR values ranged from 641W/kg (woman model – right ventricular implant) to 3 W/kg (boy model – left atrium implant). We also observed that, in general, ventricular implants showed a higher SAR compared to atrial ones, as well as right pectoral implants compared to left ones. However, not always a higher implant area or a longer lead path implied higher SAR at the tip, indicating the coupling mechanisms between the implant and the RF field are likely to be more complex that the only area-dependent induction law.

Paper Nr: 25
Title:

BONE QUALITY TESTING DURING DENTAL IMPLANT SURGERY - A Novel Device for Intraoperative Compressive Testing of Alveolar Bone

Authors:

Werner Winter

Abstract: Based on theoretical considerations, a mathematical equation was set up describing a correlation between density and mechanical properties of both, cortical and trabecular bone. Simulating the clinical situation of dental implant placement, finite element analysis was applied to test the validity of compressive testing of alveolar bone following implant site preparation. As a final step, a loading device was constructed accordingly and tested in human cadaver bone.

Paper Nr: 28
Title:

SILICON-BASED GOLD TRANSDUCERS FOR DNA BIOSENSORS

Authors:

Łukasz Górski, Robert Ziółkowski and Elżbieta Malinowska

Abstract: Silicon-based chips with vacuum deposited gold electrode were tested as transducers for the development of DNA-modified biosensors. It was found that these structures are superior over commercially available transducers, mainly due to perfectly smooth surface of gold working electrode. This was confirmed with microscopic and electrochemical experiments. Obtained transducers were modified with oligonucleotide self-assembled monolayer. These sensors were shown to detect chosen DNA sequence with the employment of methylene blue as a redox marker. The same sensors were used to determine UO22+ cation, however these efforts were unsuccessful.

Paper Nr: 31
Title:

A MULTIMODAL BRAIN-ARM INTERFACE FOR OPERATION OF COMPLEX ROBOTIC SYSTEMS AND UPPER LIMB MOTOR RECOVERY

Authors:

Michele Folgheraiter, Elsa Andrea Kirchner, Anett Seeland, Su Kyoung Kim, Mathias Jordan, Hendrik Wöhrle, Bertold Bongardt and Steffen Schmidt

Abstract: This work introduces the architecture of a novel brain-arm haptic interface usable to improve the operation of complex robotic systems, or to deliver a fine rehabilitation therapy to the human upper limb. The proposed control scheme combines different approaches from the areas of robotics, neuroscience and human-machine interaction in order to overcome the limitations of each single field. Via the adaptive Brain Reading Interface (aBRI) user movements are anticipated by classification of surface electroencephalographic data in a millisecond range. This information is afterwards integrated into the control strategy of a wearable exoskeleton in order to finely modulate its impedance and therefore to comply with the motion preparation of the user. Results showing the efficacy of the proposed control approach are presented for the single joint case.

Paper Nr: 33
Title:

A PIEZOELECTRIC ACTUATOR, BASED ON A LANGEVIN-TYPE TRANSDUCER, FOR DERMATOLOGICAL AESTHETIC APPLICATIONS

Authors:

Nicola Lamberti

Abstract: In dermatological aesthetic piezoelectric actuators are widely used: the skin treatment is obtained by the bending vibration, along the length, of a steel foil with a thickness of about 0.5 mm; the vibration frequency is in the ultrasonic range, to avoid annoying noise. In this paper a piezoelectric actuator able to excite a bending motion in the steel foil is described; the active part of the actuator is a piezoelectric Langevin–type transducer soliciting the foil at one edge. The actuator was designed by using ANSYS with the objective to obtain a system with high efficiency, low losses, high mechanical stiffness and low encumbrance. Best results were obtained by means of a Langevin actuator with a stepped horn displacement amplifier, whose total length is λ/2 at the resonance frequency; the Langevin is connected to the foil by an ad hoc support. The ANSYS results computed in operating conditions show a well sustained bending vibration of the foil with stress values, in all the actuator components, far from the limit value in the material.

Paper Nr: 34
Title:

RECORDING SPEECH SOUND AND ARTICULATION IN MRI

Authors:

Daniel Aalto, Jarmo Malinen, Pertti Palo, Olli Aaltonen, Martti Vainio and Risto-Pekka Happonen

Abstract: This article describes an arrangement for simultaneous recording of speech and the geometry of vocal tract. Experimental design is considered from the phonetics point of view. The speech signal is recorded with an acoustic-electrical arrangement and the vocal tract withMRI. Finally, data from pilot measurements on vowels is presented, and its quality is discussed.

Paper Nr: 38
Title:

ADIPSMETER - A New Skinfold Calliper System

Authors:

Maria de Fátima Chouzal, Maria Teresa Restivo, Manuel Rodrigues Quintas and Carlos Moreira da Silva

Abstract: Nowadays, the assessment of body composition is of great meaning but traditional skinfold callipers recognized in the nutritional area have not been technologically updated to provide a more effective performance with greater accuracy, allowing automatic data processing and recording in a database, offering a more user friendly handling not requiring technicians with a high degree of expertise. In order to overcome many of these deficiencies a new instrument named Adipsmeter was designed and developed. A new mechanical skinfold calliper structure has been digitally instrumented for reading skinfold thickness and equipped with wireless communication capabilities with a personal computer where a software application, integrating a database, is installed and prepared for driving a technician along a specific protocol incorporating many regression equations used in current body fat measurement at an affordable price. Its measurement range is from 0 to 110 mm, consistent with a range of use from children to obese individuals. Between the two opposing clamping surfaces mounted on its rigid arms the pressure has a constant value of 10 gf/mm2 in the whole measurement range. It has small dimension and weight and while being robust provides comfortable handling. The sensing system resolution is less than 0.1 mm, the wireless communication (MiWi) is suitable for healthcare environments, with 25 h of autonomy. The software application, with an intuitive and user friendly interface, is based in Visual Basic 2008.

Paper Nr: 51
Title:

DEVELOPMENT OF EMERGENCY MONITORING SYSTEM FOR ELDERLY WHO LIVE ALONE

Authors:

Dong Ik Shin, Pil June Pak and Ji Hoon Song

Abstract: In this paper, we introduce a mobile device for the monitoring of the elderly vital signs. Using this mobile device, we composed the emergency monitoring system. There are so many vital signs to monitor, but we simplified vital signs as activity and heart rate. We measured the activity using 3-axis accelerometer and measured the heart rate using pulse oxymeter. The major problem of pulse oxymeter is motion artifact. But we suggested a new method using the combination of these two sensors. In case of active motion, we used and analyzed the accelerometer signal and withdraw the pulse oxymeter signal. In case of no activity, we adopt pulse oxymeter signal which has no motion artifacts. The important thing is to categorize activity patterns such as normal or abnormal activity. When the device detects abnormal condition, it sends a short message to server and then connected to the u-Healthcare center or emergency center.

Paper Nr: 52
Title:

TOWARDS A NEW HOMOGENEOUS IMMUNOASSAY FOR GONADOTROPIN-RELEASING HORMONE BASED ON TIME-RESOLVED FLUORESCENCE ANISOTROPY

Authors:

Peter D. Dowd, Jan Karolin and Carol Trager-Cowan

Abstract: A new method for detecting gonadotropin-releasing hormone type 1 (GnRH-1) is proposed. The method is based on a fluorescence polarisation immunoassay where the GnRH-1 vies for the binding site on the anti-GnRH (antibody 7B10.1D10) with a labelled peptide consisting of a fragment of GnRH labelled with fluorescein. Time-resolved anisotropy decays indicate increased correlation times for the labelled fragment in the presence of 7B10.1D10 compared with the correlation times for the labelled peptide fragment alone. When GnRH-1 is added to the solution of the labelled peptide in the presence of 7B10.1D10 it has the effect of reducing the correlation times. The results demonstrate the possibility of introducing the labelled fragment as a competitor to the antigen in the fluorescence polarisation immunoassay for GnRH-1 and, more generally, in the case where there is a disadvantage in labelling the antigen, such as GnRH-1, with a fluorescent probe.

Paper Nr: 56
Title:

INSTRUMENTATION FOR MINIMALLY INVASIVE MEASUREMENT OF VESICAL PRESSURE IN MEN

Authors:

João Carlos Martins de Almeida, Rodrigo Horikawa Watanabe and David Jacques Cohen

Abstract: Urodynamic assessment is important to evaluate bladder outlet obstruction (BOO), but the procedure is invasive, expensive and time-consuming, and is not free of complications (e. g. macroscopic hematuria, fever). In a previous work, we reported a new method developed for measuring vesical static pressure during urodynamic exams by using a device named urethral connector (UC). Clinical tests indicated that the new method is comparable to the conventional standard procedure with clear advantages. In this work, we describe improvements made on the UC, which confer greater autonomy and portability to the whole measurement system. We also report the results of clinical tests.

Paper Nr: 63
Title:

ANALYSIS OF ELECTRICAL GENERATOR FOR POWER HARVESTING FROM HUMAN MOVEMENTS

Authors:

E. Sardini and V. Luciano

Abstract: In this paper various architectures of electromagnetic harvesting devices, realized in the Department of Information Engineering of the University of Brescia, is reported, estimating their usability for biomedical applications. Furthermore, this paper shows a first attempt of a new electromagnetic generator architecture. The proposed system is modelled and simulated showing promising results.

Paper Nr: 67
Title:

LOCALISED TEMPERATURE PERCEPTION IN HEALTHY ADULTS

Authors:

Jérôme Foussier and Jennifer Caffarel

Abstract: This paper presents a testing procedure for local temperature perception with a following evaluation of the acquired information. Relative temperature changes had to be noticed by the subjects. To apply a temperature effect a peltier element arrangement, permitting to cool down and heat up with one element, has been utilized. First results show good correlation with a warmth sensation scale, although highly subjective parameters have been interpreted. The error rate in detecting small temperature changes is higher than for larger changes, except for very high changes, which caused temperature misperceptions.

Paper Nr: 68
Title:

MEASURING INTENTION TREMOR IN MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS USING INERTIAL MEASUREMENT UNIT (IMU) DEVICES

Authors:

Laurence P. Ketteringham, Simon A. Neild and Richard A. Hyde

Abstract: This paper describes research to create a sensor based measurement system in order to provide detailed and accurate data on the movement disorder known as intention tremor, a condition that affects a significant proportion of individuals with multiple sclerosis. Intention tremor is a complex movement disorder that worsens during goal directed movements and can therefore be extremely disabling. Multiple inertial measurement unit devices were used to measure the upper limb of subjects with multiple sclerosis and intention tremor during standard clinical finger-to-nose tests and reach-retrieve tasks, which were designed to mimic activities of daily living. Analyses allowed information on tremor characteristics to be ascertained during these movements. The equipment and software provide a useful tool for clinical assessment of tremor, displaying a variety of relevant information at differing levels of detail, obtainable at several points over the torso, shoulder, upper arm, lower arm and hand. Examples of this data are discussed. The system allows tremor assessment in more detail than is possible with clinical tests that rely on visual assessments, and provides a tool that can accurately assess the benefits of future tremor reduction devices, or other interventions.

Paper Nr: 69
Title:

POSITIONING AND ORIENTATION OF ADHERENT CELLS IN A MICROFLUIDIC CHIP USING THE MICRO PATTERNING OF A PARYLENE-C FILM

Authors:

Claire Dalmay, Jun-Jung Lai, Laurent Griscom, Olivier Français, Bruno Le Pioufle and Frédéric Subra

Abstract: A new method for the positioning and orientation of adherent cells on a culture substrate is presented. We demonstrate the ability of a micro patterned parylene-C film deposited on a fused silica substrate to position, isolate and/or orientate cells. Such features are crucial for the development of future biodevices for the analysis and treatment of single-cell or organized cell tissues. In particular, our method is advantageous for controlling the orientation of the cells within an organized tissue while being exposed to an electrical field. The developed method does not require any chemical treatment of the cells or any additional surface modification and is suitable for integration into a microfluidic system.

Paper Nr: 82
Title:

A MULTI-PIN DROPLET ROUTING ALGORITHM FOR DIGITAL MICROFLUIDIC BIOCHIPS

Authors:

Pranab Roy

Abstract: Digital microfluidic biochips have emerged as a major area of attention in the fields of Clinical Research, Medical diagnostics and are destined to revolutionize the biological laboratory procedure in coming years. As the use of Digital microfluidic biochips becomes widespread in safety critical biomedical applications – the need for enhanced automation for the complex biological procedures become more pronounced. In this paper, we attempted to design a high performance routing procedure applicable for multi-pin digital microfluidic biochips that deals with multiple source target routing in a concurrent manner using hierarchical approach. The avoidance of cross contamination is a key challenge in the design of a biochip. Our paper attempts to minimize this problem while parallel routing of droplets with an aim to optimize the cell utilization and minimize the overall routing time as well. The proposed method uses a special technique for clustering the sub-problems together and uses a hierarchical scheme to optimize the routing process. Empirical results obtained are quite encouraging.

Paper Nr: 83
Title:

DEVELOPMENT OF VERTEBRAL METRICS - An Instrument to Study the Vertebral Column

Authors:

António Jordão and Pedro Duque

Abstract: The purpose of this article is to present a new instrument to study the vertebral column. This device is an evolution from Vertebral Metrics (Quaresma, 2010). In this new device, the detection of the spinous process is semi-automatic, non-invasive and it is prepared to analyse the entire population. The data acquired from the instrument will allow three dimensional analysis of the vertebral column in standing position. With this instrument, hospital staff will be able to study biomechanical changes in the vertebral column due to incorrect exercise, injury, congenital malformations, obesity, pregnancies, etc. The device uses a system of movement in two axes that is controlled by software. The software uses a video camera and image processing algorithm to detect points that were previously marked in the spinous process of the individual under study. The software gives orders to the mechanic part to move the equipment to position the mark made by laser upon the spinous process. In these conditions, the spatial coordinates of the spinous process are stored and the process is repeated for the others spinous processes. A complete examination takes approximately 2 minutes and 25 seconds after manual tracing of the spine and improving is being made to the software to reach the 30 seconds mark. This instrument has the possibility of performing consecutive sweeps, for dynamic accommodation studies.

Paper Nr: 86
Title:

A REAL-TIME CELL PROLIFERATION AND MOTILITY MONITORING SYSTEM

Authors:

Nicola Moscelli and Sander van den Driesche

Abstract: In this contribution we present a compact imaging system to monitor the proliferation and the motility of cells in real-time. Our monitoring system is compatible with standard multi-well plates and operates in CO2, temperature and humidity controlled cell-culture incubators. Adherent grown epithelial cells in a multi-well plate well, positioned on top of a custom made holder, have been monitored in real-time with a fixed CCD image sensor. As light source an LED is placed above the plate holder. A field of view of 3.3 × 2.5 mm2 was achieved by using a 4.6 × 4.0 mm2 image sensor and mini lens system. The image sensor has a resolution of 640 × 480 pixels. Consequently, the obtained sensing resolution of the imaging system is about 5 μm. The cell monitoring system has first been validated by visualizing micro-beads of known dimensions. Then, our system has been successfully tested, tracking the migration paths and proliferation of respectively adherent grown MDCK (Madin-Darby canine kidney) and A549 (human lung carcinoma) epithelial cells.

Paper Nr: 87
Title:

SELECTIVELY BONDED POLYMERIC CHECK VALVE FOR THE RELIABLE REGULATION OF INTRAOCULAR PRESSURE

Authors:

Seongmin Im, Jaeyong An, Jongchan Choi and Byungphil Mun

Abstract: A glaucoma drainage device for the regulation of intraocular pressure is presented. The device consists of three biocompatible polymer layers: the cover (top layer), the diaphragm (intermediate layer), and the baseplate with a cannular (bottom layer). Finite element analyses (FEA) were performed to find optimal design parameters for the targeted cracking pressure: the diameter of orifice, the thickness of intermediate layer, the width of the channel, and the overlapped length of the orifice over valve seat. Top and bottom layers were made by polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) replica molding process, and an intermediate thin layer with through-holes was fabricated by PDMS fill-in molding method and hydrophobic treatment. The overlapped area of the bottom layer was coated with Cr and Au by using PDMS as a shadow mask. Metal layers are not to be bonded between the bottom and the intermediate layers so that the device showed the enhanced reliability in operation and the higher yield in production. Oxygen plasma treatment was performed for irreversible bonds between separate three PDMS layers. The experimental cracking pressure of the fabricated valve was 2.50 kPa, which is very close to the target value (2.67 kPa). The experiments showed that the proposed polymer check valve can regulate the pressure of the aqueous humour, fluid in an anterior chamber, within the normal intraocular pressure range (15~20mmHg) with a high repeatability.

Paper Nr: 90
Title:

A NOVEL SPATIAL MICROCHANNEL FLUIDIC JOINT

Authors:

Benjamin Chang

Abstract: This paper presents and discusses a flexible, polymer-based, novel microchannel fluidic joint (MFJ) that is driven by a pressurized working fluid. The MFJ has been designed for being used in biomedical applications in the future. The MFJ actuating system has two degrees of freedom and implements a unique 3-channel design. In this paper, a prototype of the proposed MFJ is presented along with its manufacturing procedure. Measurements related to the MFJ displacements are presented and a simplified fitting exponential equation is proposed to describe the relationship between MFJ deformation and the working fluid pressure. Performance of the proposed device and its potential future applications are discussed.

Paper Nr: 91
Title:

EVALUATING STRAIN SENSOR PERFORMANCE FOR MOTION ANALYSIS

Authors:

Giancarlo Orengo and Giovanni Saggio

Abstract: Investigation on the more suitable technologies to register human body movements in 3D space with great spatial accuracy is a very challenging task, because a wide range of applications are concerned, from registration of post-stroke rehabilitation or sports performance, to monitoring of movement of disabled or elderly people, etc. In this paper the possibilities offered by piezoresistive bend sensors applied as wearable devices, integrated on body garments, have been explored. Piezoresistive sensors can be usefully adopted to recover human joint bend angles for body movement tracking. Due to their pliability, sensitivity and cheapness, they could be a valid alternative to movement analysis systems based on optoelectronic devices or inertial electronic sensors. This paper suggests a new approach to model their electrical behavior during bending and extension movements, in order to predict their real-time performance during different kinds of applications.

Paper Nr: 101
Title:

THE NATURE OF MEDICAL DEVICE SERVICES - A Multiple-case Study

Authors:

Christian Mauro

Abstract: The integration of medical devices into the IT infrastructure of hospitals is still a major challenge. Recent research tries to adapt service oriented concepts to the field of medical devices in order to achieve an easier and better integration. However, no generalized framework for this kind of integration exists. The purpose of this paper is to identify the characteristics (the nature) of medical device services. The results were achieved by conducting a multiple-case study with three cases on two university hospitals. As a result, we identified twelve specific integration issues of medical devices and deduced eight characteristics. This paper contributes to the design of a generalized framework for the service oriented integration of medical devices. The identified characteristics can be interpreted as requirements to such a framework.

Paper Nr: 104
Title:

EVALUATION OF A MOBILE ELECTRODE FOR ELECTRICAL STIMULATION OF THE PERINEAL MUSCLE - Preventive or Therapeutic Treatment

Authors:

Fabiana S. B. Perez, Adson F. da Rocha and João Luiz A. Carvalho

Abstract: This work evaluates the effectiveness of a new type of electrode for functional electrical stimulation of the perineal muscle in women and in men. The new electrode is shaped like a pen, with an active stimulation electrode located on its tip. The goals of the study are to (i) demonstrate that stimulation using the new device results in increased muscle strength; and (ii) compare the performance of the new device with that of a traditional (fixed) electrode. Eight patients were evaluated, following a blind study protocol. The preliminary results suggest that stimulation with the new electrode achieves better results than stimulation with traditional electrodes, as higher increases in strength were observed in the group that used the mobile electrode for preventive treatment and as an option of therapeutic treatment for female and for male perineal dysfunction, in particular on erectile dysfunction in men with spinal cord injury.

Paper Nr: 110
Title:

BIOINSPIRED SENSORY INTEGRATION FOR ENVIRONMENT PERCEPTION EMBEDDED SYSTEMS

Authors:

Jordi Madrenas, Daniel Fernández, Jordi Cosp and J. Manuel Moreno

Abstract: In this work, the architecture of a system intended for bioinspired environment perception is described. Considering the technology trends and applications requirements, the properties of such a system are discussed. The system consists of four main blocks: a) A set of different integrated microsensors and microactuators with the associated signal conditioning circuits; b) A data encoding block that in its simplest form performs spike encoding of information; c) a bioinspired digital processing block that efficiently emulates a spiking neuron network; d) a monitoring and self-adaptation block that provides feedback to the sensors and actuators. In its final implementation, the full system would eventually be almost fully integrated in a CMOS integrated circuit.

Paper Nr: 113
Title:

WEARABLE HUMAN BODY JOINT AND POSTURE MEASURING SYSTEM

Authors:

P. Dunias, R. Gransier and A. Jin

Abstract: In many medical applications, especially the orthopaedic setting, ambulatory, monitoring of human joint angles could be of substantial value to improving rehabilitation strategies and unravelling the pathomechanics of many degenerative joint diseases (e.g. knee osteoarthritis). With the ageing of the population and increasing incidence of obesity, the prevalence of degenerative joint diseases is increasing (e.g. knee osteoarthritis is the single most common cause of pain and disability in middle-aged and older adults. As an example, In case of osteoarthritis rehabilitation, it is critical to monitor the loading of the affected joint during activities of daily living (ADL). These measurements allow monitoring of daily activity patterns, joint angles and walking patterns, which could be of use in adjusting the applied therapy depending on the results measured.

Paper Nr: 120
Title:

A PDMS BASED INTEGRATED PCR MICROCHIP FOR GENETIC ANALYSIS

Authors:

Sandeep Kumar Jha, You-Cheol Jang and Rohit Chand

Abstract: An integrated continuous-flow microfluidic chip was fabricated on glass substrate with PDMS based microchannels, cell lysis and PCR modules. Gold-microelectrodes were used to produce electrochemical cell lysis, while, indium-tin-oxide (ITO) microheater was used for thermal cycling of PCR reaction. The fabricated device was used for 20 cycles of PCR amplification of pancreatic cancer DNA marker (SMAD4) from non-tumorigenic MCF10a human cell lines. The 193 bp PCR amplicon obtained through on-chip PCR was confirmed in case of MCF 10a cells through agarose gel electrophoresis, whereas no product was detected in case of tumorigenic MCF7 cells. The total time required for entire reaction was less than 90 min. Therefore, we propose that such microchip can be helpful in predicting the risk of cancer by analysis of genetic tumor markers from human samples and can also be used for other genetic analysis involving PCR reaction.

Paper Nr: 121
Title:

PORTABLE DEVICE TO MONITOR AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM ACTIVITY THROUGH CLOTHES

Authors:

Kang Moo Lee, Seung Min Lee, Gih Sung Chung and Hong Ji Lee

Abstract: Heart rate variability (HRV) reflects the autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity and HRV parameters are extracted from electrocardiogram (ECG) signal. However, the conventional ECG electrodes such as Ag/AgCl electrode make a person uncomfortable due to electrolytic paste or conductive adhesive used for ensuring good contact between electrode and skin. In this study, the portable device with capacitive electrodes was designed to monitor ANS activity through clothes. By using capacitive electrodes, ECG can be measured without direct skin-contact through capacitive coupling between the body and the electrodes. To evaluate the possibility that the ANS activity can be monitored using the capacitive electrode system, HRV parameters extracted from the capacitive electrodes were compared with HRV parameters extracted from Ag/AgCl electrodes. Results showed that there was no significant difference between the HRV parameters of two different electrodes.

Paper Nr: 122
Title:

CARDIAC DIAGNOSING BY A PIEZOELECTRIC-TRANSDUCER-BASED HEART SOUND MONITOR SYSTEM

Authors:

Shinichi Sato, Takashi Koyama, Kyoichi Ono, Gen Igarashi and Hiroyuki Watanabe

Abstract: A variety of diagnosis that auscultation enables is not necessarily conducted thoroughly by all of the physicians because of its difficulty in judging by means of listening to evanescent sounds with their ears. A system that displays heart sounds continuously on a computer screen may be convenient for cardiac diagnosis. Recently, we made a monitor system with employing a piezoelectric transducer (PZT) sensor, which detected 1st and 2nd sound and murmurs clearly. In addition, the sensor was capable of detecting inaudible low-frequency sounds of below ~20Hz. Using the PZT sensor, we recorded heart sounds at left second intercostals space in 12 patients susceptible to cardiac diseases in parallel with ECG recording, and analysed the raw heart sounds and band-pass (20–100 Hz) filtered signal. Second sound in the filtered signal was completely or often absent and/or a sharp deflection, which appears coincidently with R wave, with a peak-peak voltage of >20 mV and a duration of <25 ms was missing in the raw sound signal in 90% (9/10) of the patients diagnosed as having cardiac dysfunctions. Thus, we believe that the PZT-based heart sound monitor system may contribute to the advance of the phonocardiographic diagnosis of cardiac diseases.

Paper Nr: 125
Title:

MICROCHIP CAPILLARY ELECTROPHORESIS DEVICE FOR AMPEROMETRIC DETECTION OF DNA WITH REDOX INTERCALATION

Authors:

Rohit Chand and You-Cheol Jang

Abstract: Microfabricated biochips are very efficient platforms for analysis of biologically important molecules such as DNA, RNA, enzymes, antibodies etc. These devices requires sample in micro/nano volume and produces faster and better results. For these reasons, we fabricated a simple, disposable microfluidic device for amperometric detection of DNA intercalated with methylene blue redox dye. The devices were fabricated using conventional photolithographic method. The microchannels were laid in PDMS using negative molding. The microchannel was 2 cm in length while the height and thickness were 250 µm and 200 µm respectively. The electrodes used for electrophoretic separation and amperometric detection were made of gold and were deposited by thermal evaporation on glass substrate. For the detection of DNA, fish sperm DNA was intercalated with methylene blue as an analyte. The cyclic voltammograms of free methylene blue and those of different concentrations of DNA intercalated with same amount of methylene blue was obtained in this study. The intercalated DNA was then injected in the sample reservoir of fabricated device and subjected to a separation electric field. The i-t curve was monitored for this process. The electropherograms thus obtained suggested a possibility of rapid detection of DNA with high sensitivity and reproducibility.

Paper Nr: 132
Title:

BUILDING LOCAL K-D TREE FOR FLEXIBLY LABELING ARTICULATED POINT SETS

Authors:

Wu Huang and Shihong Xia

Abstract: Optical motion capture system is widely used to acquire human motions by capturing the trajectories of markers that are attached to the body. Identifying the marker trajectories is challenging but indispensable in most of real applications. Conventional methods rely on either labor-intensive manually labeling or auto-labeling with assumption of pose similarity to the topological model. This paper presents a novel method to flexibly label markers from human motion capture sequences. The point sets in a rigid segment defined in the topological model are firstly clustered by using the spectral clustering algorithm. For each rigid segment, a local k-d tree is constructed to robustly match two point sets without pose similarity assumption. To match all rigid bodies with those in topological model for efficiently and correctly labeling, the labeling process is carefully designed using the articulated structure of acquired data. Experiments show that our method outperforms conventional methods in accuracy and is robust when labeling markers in motion capture sequences from different subjects.

Paper Nr: 134
Title:

MULTI-ANALYTE DETECTION FOR BIOLOGICAL FLUIDS - Towards Continous Monitoring of Glucose, Ionized Calcium and pH using a Viscometric Affinity Biosensor

Authors:

Christophe Boss, Eric Meurville, Peter Ryser, Frédéric Schmitt and Lucienne Juillerat-Jeanneret

Abstract: We present a viscometric affinity biosensor that can potentially allow continuous multi-analyte monitoring in biological fluids like blood or plasma. The sensing principle is based on the detection of viscosity changes of a polymeric solution which has a selective affinity for the analyte of interest. The chemico-mechanical sensor incorporates an actuating piezoelectric diaphragm, a sensing piezoelectric diaphragm and a flow-resisting microchannel for viscosity detection. A free-standing Anodic Alumina Oxide (AAO) porous nano-membrane is used as selective interface. A glucose-sensitive sensor was fabricated and extensively assessed in buffer solution. The sensor reversibility, stability and sensitivity were excellent during at least 65 hours. Results showed also a good degree of stability for a long term measurement (25 days). The sensor behaviour was furthermore tested in fetal bovine serum (FBS). The obtained results for glucose sensing are very promising, indicating that the developed sensor is a candidate for continuous monitoring in biological fluids. Sensitive solutions for ionized calcium and pH are currently under development and should allow multi-analyte sensing in the near future.

Posters
Paper Nr: 2
Title:

LIFETIME MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS FOR MEDICAL DEVICES - Specific Methods for Life Extension of Equipment and Systems in Medical Devices

Authors:

Oliver Heuermann and Wolfgang Fengler

Abstract: This position paper describes research activities in the scope of targeted lifetime extension of components which are used in medical devices and high energy physics. The considered medical areas are in the diagnostics and the therapy field. The focus of the analysis of medical machines and systems with high-power tubes is on the x-ray-radiation or rf-power performance. On this occasion, the operational behaviour of such tubes is of special interest. In this paper a methodology will be presented to examine the specific influence of service life-determining parameters. For the implementation of the methodology a discrete event simulation is constructed using the realtime design tool MLDesigner from MLDesign Technologies, Inc. With the help of different example tubes in the form of workable specifications the mean physical behaviour is copied. The base specification is extended by additional functions for special types of tubes. Therefore, studies can be carried out with regard to the tube service life in different components. The simulation shows that the targeted specific influence on the service life-determining parameters can prolong useful service life of a high power tube.

Paper Nr: 5
Title:

OPTICAL FIBER CHARACTERIZED WITH A LOW REFRACTIVE INDEX CAN DETECT BLOOD - Blood Increased Light Loss through an Air–cladding Optical Fiber

Authors:

Akihiro Takeuchi, Tomohiro Miwa, Minoru Sawada, Haruo Imaizumi and Hiroyuki Sugibuchi

Abstract: Large amounts of undetected blood loss during hemodialysis are caused by venous needle dislodgement. A special air-cladding plastic optical fiber with a low refractive index, fluoropolymer, PFA fiber, JUNFLON®, was developed to monitor oil and lipid leakage in industrial fields, and to monitor the dust in the air in clean rooms. To apply the air-cladding plastic optical fiber as a bleed sensor, we studied the optical effects of soaking the fiber with various liquids and porcine blood on light-loss experimental settings. Light intensity through the fiber was studied with a light emitting diode and a photodiode under various conditions of soaked fiber with reverse osmosis water, physiological saline, glucose, and porcine blood. The more the soaked length increased with all mediums, the more the light intensity decreased. Although the slopes of the decreased curves varied according to the mediums, the light scattering phenomena caused by the mediums can be applied to a bleed sensor for clinical use.

Paper Nr: 6
Title:

ELECTRICAL RELIABILITY OF Cu/Sn MICRO-BUMP IN WAFER LEVEL PACKAGING FOR BioMEMS DEVICES

Authors:

Myeong-Hyeok Jeong, Jae-Won Kim, Byung-Hyun Kwak and Young-Bae Park

Abstract: The electrical reliability of Cu/Sn micro-bump in wafer level packaging for advanced BioMEMS devices applications were systematically investigated during current stressing condition. After bump bonding, Cu3Sn and Cu6Sn5 intermetallic phases were observed, and Cu3Sn formed and grew at Cu pillar/Cu6Sn5 interface with increasing annealing and current stressing time. The kinetics of intermetallic compound growth changed when all Sn in Cu/Sn micro-bump was exhausted. The complete consumption time of Sn phase in electromigration condition was faster than that in annealing condition. Under current stressing condition, intermetallic compound growth was significantly enhanced by current stressing where the growth rate follows a linear relationship with stressing time.

Paper Nr: 23
Title:

A SENSORIZED PLATFORM TO MONITOR AND REGULATE VAD FUNCTIONALITIES - Wearable and Implantable Devices to Improve VAD Performances and Extend its Field of Application

Authors:

N. Taccini, M. Nannizzi and C. Ciaponi

Abstract: A novel system to control Ventricular Assist Device (VAD) is under study in the frame of the project SENSORART (FP7-ICT-248763, funded by the European Commission). The SensorART platform will be open, interoperable, extendable and VAD-independent and it will incorporate different hardware and software components in order to improve both the quality of the patients’ treatment and the workflow of the specialists. In the frame of this project a set of implantable sensors will be identified, developed and/or adapted for long term implant, in order to gather all the necessary information to control the VAD functionalities by a wearable hardware unit. Wearable sensors will be studied to assist the decision algorithms by gathering physiological parameters using non invasive approach. Purpose of this paper is to give a brief description of the system under study and describe the preliminary activity performed during the developing of the implantable and wearable sensors. In particular, the evaluation and calibration of a novel catheter pressure sensor is reported and the results of the feasibility of a tonometry wearable system is described.

Paper Nr: 26
Title:

PORTABLE INSTRUMENTATION PLATFORM FOR ECL-BASED SENSORS AND BIOSENSORS

Authors:

A. J. Palma, M. A. Carvajal, N. Lopez-Ruiz and J. Ballesta-Claver

Abstract: A new portable instrumentation platform for electrochemiluminescence (ECL)-based disposable sensors and biosensors is described. The reader unit consists of a potentiostat and a photodiode as light-to-current converter integrated in the same instrument. To check the performance of the instrument as sensors platform, two transduction chemistries (luminol and tris(2,2’bipyridyl)ruthenium(II)) and two widely used analytes (hydrogen peroxide and triethylamine) were selected. Additionally, different working modes have been implemented in the instrument: chronoamperometry and cyclic voltammetry. The calibration functions obtained show linear dependences with dynamic ranges from 0.01 to 0.07 mg•l-1 for H2O2, 0.05 – 10.0 mg•l-1 for triethylamine with detection limits of 0.01 mg•l-1 for H2O2 and 0.03 mg•l-1 for triethylamine and a sensor-to-sensor reproducibility (relative standard deviation RSD) around 8.2 % and 3.1 %, respectively at the medium level of the range.

Paper Nr: 27
Title:

A MULTIBAND CMOS VCO WITH SWITCHING BONDWIRE INDUCTOR FOR BIOMEDICAL WIRELESS FREQUENCY BAND - Design and Performance Analysis

Authors:

Seonghan Ryu

Abstract: This paper presents a multiband low phase noise CMOS VCO with wide frequency tunability using switched bondwire inductor bank, for operation in the medical wireless frequency band. The combination of bondwire inductor and CMOS switch transistor enhances frequency tunability and improves phase noise characteristics. All most of the medical wireless frequency bands can be covered by the single VCO proposed in this paper. The proposed multiband VCOs, VCO1 operates from 2.3 GHz to 6.3 GHz with phase noise of -136 and -122 dBc/Hz at 1 MHz offset frequency, respectively, and VCO2 operates from 4.9 GHz to 12.7 GHz with phase noise of -122.3 and -111.8 dBc/Hz at 1 MHz offset frequency, respectively. Switched bondwire inductor bank shows high quality factor Q at each frequency band, which allows better tradeoff between phase noise and power consumption. The proposed VCO1 is designed in TSMC 0.18um CMOS process and consumes 7.2 mW power resulting in figure of merit(FOM) of -189.3 dBc/Hz at 1 MHz offset from 6 GHz carrier frequency, and the proposed VCO2 is designed in SEC 65nm CMOS process and consumes 8 mW power resulting in figure of merit(FOM) of -184.6 dBc/Hz at 1 MHz offset from 12 GHz carrier frequency.

Paper Nr: 29
Title:

A VIBRATION-BASED ENERGY HARVESTING SYSTEM FOR IMPLANTABLE BIOMEDICAL TELEMETRY SYSTEMS

Authors:

Nuno Silva, Paulo Santos, Raul Morais, Clara Frias, Jorge Ferreira and António Ramos

Abstract: Using the new trend of energy harvesting, an envisioned electromagnetic power transducer that uses human gait to produce electrical energy is presented as a solution to energize biomedical devices. Regardless of the walking speed, starting at 0.7 Hz, it is possible to store a total energy of 2.2 mJ, using two 1000 µF capacitors as energy storage elements. Afterwards, this energy becomes available to the telemetric system through an efficient power management module. Since the end application, an implantable biomedical telemetric system, needs a total of 360 µJ to operate, the here presented power transducer is well suited for implant power needs.

Paper Nr: 48
Title:

PRE-OSTEOBLASTIC CELL RESPONSES ON POLY (ε-CAPROLACTONE)-ORGANOSILOXANE NANOCOMPOSITE PREPARED BY SOL-GEL METHOD

Authors:

Sang-Hoon Rhee, Young-Mi Kang, Byung-Moo Min and Seung Jin Lee

Abstract: The pre-osteoblastic cell responses on poly(ε-caprolactone)-organosiloxane nanocomposite containing silanol groups was carried out to find out the origin of its good osteogenic properties. A poly(ε-caprolactone)-organosiloxane nanocomposite containing silanol groups was synthesized through sol-gel method. The adhesion, proliferation and differentiation activities of pre-osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells were evaluated using scanning electron microscopy, confocal laser microscopy analysis, MTS assay, Western blotting of integrins (α5β1 and α3βv), ALP activity test, RT-PCR, and calcium content assays. Tissue culture plate was used as a control. Cell adhesion on poly(ε-caprolactone)-organosiloxane nanocomposite was similar to that on tissue culture plate. However, α5β1 integrin expression on poly(ε-caprolactone)-organosiloxane nanocomposite was higher than that on tissue culture plate whereas α3βv expression was similar to each other. Proliferation activity on poly(ε-caprolactone)-organosiloxane nanocomposite was lower than that on tissue culture plate whereas differentiation activity was much higher. Thus, it can be known that the excellent differentiation activity of MC3T3-E1 cells on poly(ε-caprolactone)-organosiloxane nanocomposite might be originated from their high α5β1 integrin expression. From the results, it can be concluded that poly(ε-caprolactone)-organosiloxane nanocomposite containing silanol groups made by sol-gel method has a good osteoblast responses. It means it has a potential to be used as a bone grafting material or tissue engineering scaffold material because of its apatite-forming ability, good bone cell responses, and osteoconductivity.

Paper Nr: 50
Title:

RESEARCH OF A NEW RF-ASSISTED DEVICE FOR THERMAL DAMAGE OF THE LIVER

Authors:

Kuo-Sheng Hung and Han-Yi Cheng

Abstract: Applications of the electrosurgery for dissection have been investigated widely. This new technology is necessary for the development of surgical device in order to decrease the thermal damage around the tissue. The purpose of the study is to prevent the thermal energy from focusing on the part of the tissue by surface treatment of nano-chromium nitride (CrN) film on the invasive microsurgery device. The results of this study (the electrosurgery), could promote the thermal conduction by the surface treatment method. Depending on different treatment skills, which could create many kinds of surfaces and these new surfaces could increase about the 10% to 20% area on the substrate. The maximum temperature could effectively decrease 8% by using electrode with surface treatment and the volume of hurting tissue decreased about 2%. There are two points which could decrease the thermal damage. Firstly, through surface treatment, it could increase the surface area and secondly, the electric resistivity of the chromium nitride is low, so it could promote the conductive speed. Both of these could achieve thermal homogeneous diffusion successfully. The mechanism of surface treatment in microsurgery application could promote the thermal conductivity, and expected to benefit greatly on the clinical application. Surface treatment could enhance the microsurgery efficiency on the clinical application.

Paper Nr: 57
Title:

LOW-INVASIVE HEATING AND TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT METHOD FOR HYPERTHERMIA TREATMENT USING THE METAL COATED FERROMAGNETIC IMPLANT WITH LOW CURIE TEMPERATURE

Authors:

Kazutaka Mitobe and Noboru Yoshimura

Abstract: Hyperthermia has been used for many years to treat various types of malignant tumor because tumor cells are more sensitive to temperature in the range of 42-45°C than are normal tissue cells. In this study, we aim to develop the local heating method and monitoring method for hyperthermia using the Ferromagnetic Implant with Low Curie Temperature (FILCT) under high frequency magnetic field. The heat generation inefficiency of FILCT causes a barrier in order to use this method as a bedside tool. In this research work, we coated the FILCT with a metal material in order to improve the heat generation efficiency. The magnetic permeability of FILCT decreased around the Curie temperature; therefore we can use FILCT as a thermal probe by measuring of the changing vector of the magnetic flux at the outside of human body noninvasively. In this paper, we describe about the experimental setup and in vitro experimental results.

Paper Nr: 59
Title:

ANNEALING TEMPERATURE EFFECT ON THE SENSITIVITY OF SIGE NANOWIRE FOR BIO-SENSOR

Authors:

Kow-Ming Chang, Chu-Feng Chen, Yu-Bin Wang and Chung-Hsien Liu

Abstract: Nanowire is widely used in biological sensor because it has the high surface-to-volume ratio. Germanium (Ge) would be beneficial to enhance the sensitivity of silicon nanowire for bio-sensor. In this study, we have successfully fabricated the SiGe on Insulator (SGOI) nanowires with different annealing temperature by side-wall spacer technique, respectively. The 3-amino-propyltrime-thoxy-silane (APTS) is used to modify the surface, which can connect the bio-linker. Nanowire is considered as a resistance, and the change of conductance (G) and sensitivity (S) of different samples corresponding to APTS treatment were investigated. As annealing temperature was elevated from 800 to 950℃, the SiGe nanowire exhibited increasing sensitivity in the chemical detection. However, it was noted that degradation of sensitivity was observed as the annealing temperature increases up to 1000℃. This behavior may be associated with the reduction of the Ge concentration at the surface of SiGe nanowire due to high-temperature diffusion of Ge in Si. So, temperature is a key parameter in the annealing process producing two effects: repairs of defects and Ge diffusion. There would be an optimal annealing temperature between 900 and 1000℃.

Paper Nr: 66
Title:

HUMAN KNEE PROSTHESIS EQUIPPED WITH FORCE SENSORS

Authors:

M. Gazzoli and E. Sardini

Abstract: In-vivo monitoring of human knee implants after total arthroplasty increases the knowledge about articular motion and loading conditions. The proposed knee prosthesis equipped with force sensors executes force measurements in polyethylene human knee prosthesis by two sensorized metal bars positioned under the femoral condyles and fully contained in the polyethylene insert. In this paper, a new force sensor, which acts in the knee integrated in the prosthesis, is proposed with the aim of reducing the hysteresis of polyethylene material and increase the rigidity of the insert. The fabricated sensors are characterized and tested by means of a mechanical press controlled load. The realized conditioning electronics is done by low power components and it can be integrated in an autonomous system. The forces transmitted across the knee joint during normal human activities such as walking, running or climbing can be directly measured. Furthermore, the device can be used to improve design, refine surgical instrumentation, guide post-operative physical therapy and detect human activities that can overload the system.

Paper Nr: 70
Title:

NON CONVENTIONAL METHODS FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF MANDIBLE BONE QUALITY

Authors:

Malvina Orkoula and Sofia Panteliou

Abstract: The contemporary methods for the assessment of the quality of human mandible, in order to facilitate the decision making for dental implants, include bone density measurements through dual-energy X-Ray absorptiometry (DEXA) or its variations. The estimation of mandible quality with these methods is related to subjectivity, comparability and reliability problems, which result in restricted capability of secure assessment of bone quality. Monitoring of loss of structural integrity is applied in this work through modal analysis and Raman Spectroscopy, in order to obtain objective assessment of mandible bone quality. Specifically, modal damping factor (MDF), bone mineral density (BMD) and Raman measurements are performed on human cadaveric mandibles. From the data acquired clearly arises a very promising correlation between MDF, BMD and RAMAN, reinforcing the belief from our previous research findings that the MDF method can lead to a mandible quality assessment tool, thus encouraging further research investigation.

Paper Nr: 71
Title:

SENSITIVE ELECTROCHEMICAL METHOD DEVELOPMENT - For “in vivo” Measurement of ROS in Ethanol Induced Stress

Authors:

Lívia Nagy, Tünde Angyal, Geza Nagy and Matsumoto Akiko

Abstract: The role of reactive oxidizing species (ROS) is proved within numerous physiological processes, including aging, signal transduction and some kind of immune functions. Nowadays ROS and oxidative stress gain increasing attention in connection with a wide spectrum of diseases. In case of Asian people, the enzyme taking part in the ethanol metabolism, the aldehyde dehydrogenase is absent or mutated, that can result in liver tissue damage upon extensive alcohol consumption. Most of the ROS species are electrochemically active therefore the applications of electrochemical methods are the most promising for in situ or in vivo monitoring or quantification of them. In our work development and improvements of selective and sensitive method for electrochemical detection of these molecules and radicals are attempted. We prepared ultra thin size-exclusion layer by electropolymerization of m-phenylenediamine monomer on the surface of the Pt working electrode to ensure its selectivity. We have worked out the optimal circumstances for the selective layer preparation and tested its stability and function. In order to enhance the sensitivity of ROS detection a new amperometric method, the periodically interrupted amperometry (PIA) was developed and applied. With this approach we succeeded selective and sensitive detection of H2O2 in vitro.

Paper Nr: 72
Title:

WIRELESS DEVICE FOR NONINVASIVE RECORDINGS OF CARDIO-RESPIRATORY SIGNALS

Authors:

Pedro Giassi Junior and João Fernando Refosco Baggio

Abstract: This work describes a portable device that acquires two ECG leads, pulse photopletismography waveform and respiratory flow waveform that are sent, using wireless Bluetooth protocol, to a notebook where they are shown on the screen in real time and are also stored into the hard disk. Example of recording during cardiac autonomic activity blockade is presented. The results show that the developed system is a suitable tool to study autonomic modulation of the heart rate variability in different scenarios.

Paper Nr: 73
Title:

AUTOMATIC SYSTEM FOR BLOOD TYPE CLASSIFICATION USING IMAGE PROCESSING TECHNIQUES

Authors:

Ana Ferraz, Vania Moreira and Diana Silva

Abstract: There is still not yet available a low-cost commercial equipment to determine blood types in an emergency situation. This paper presents the development of a low cost system, based on image processing techniques, that allows the automatic determination of human blood types in emergency situations. The experimental method is based on the plate test where the serums specifics of blood types determination are mixed with the sample blood of the donor. The mixtures blood/serums are captured through a CCD camera and analyzed using the software IMAQ Vision from National Instruments. The developed image processing methodology and the obtained results are detailed. The first prototype for automatic human blood determination is presented.

Paper Nr: 76
Title:

SENSECARE - Real-time Location-based Health Monitoring System

Authors:

Gerardo Reveriego and Javier Tellez

Abstract: This paper presents an application capable of monitoring the activity of a user in real time. Our work relies on a mobile phone since most users already have one and usually take it with them everywhere they go. Our system makes use of a pulse oximeter connected to the phone to register physiological parameters and sends them to a coordination centre. Other users, such as doctors or carers, can download health data from the coordination center. The result is a report on the route followed by the user with geo-referenced physiological parameters shown in real time. A Geographic Information System (GIS) was used as support. This standard-based report can be visualized with various compatible GIS. We have used Google Earth due to its public and free accessibility.

Paper Nr: 80
Title:

TISSUE HEATING DUE TO ENDOCARDIAL LEADS DURING MRI SCANS - Numerical Models and Experimental Validation

Authors:

Eugenio Mattei, Giovanni Calcagnini, Michele Triventi, Federica Censi and Pietro Bartolini

Abstract: Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) tissue heating due to implanted leads represents a major concern for the safety of patients bearing metallic devices. In this work temperature measurements were performed to validate the typical solutions adapted as endocardial lead models, that are a thin bare metal wire and an insulated one. Both experimental and numerical analysis was performed in the frequency range between 10kHz and 128MHz ( frequencies of the gradient and RF fields of MRI systems). We found that the bare wire is not a reliable model to study the RF heating locally induced at the lead tip. At low frequencies (<1MHz), the PM lead can be properly modelled as an insulated thin metal wire, providing that the actual resistivity of the lead is also modelled. As frequency increases, such a model becomes less accurate and different solutions must be adopted.

Paper Nr: 81
Title:

MONITORING QoS OVER WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS - For Medical Applications

Authors:

Carlos Abreu

Abstract: Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) for medical purposes enables real-time (RT) acquisition of vital signals. In this context the network reliability, data integrity and RT delivery have extreme importance. The network should guarantee an appropriate level of Quality of Service (QoS). This paper presents the QoS parameters and metrics of standard telemedicine and WSNs based Medical Applications (MA), and a strategy, based on QoS monitoring, to prevent QoS degradation in WSNs for MA.

Paper Nr: 88
Title:

ELECTROCUTANEOUS FEEDBACK SYSTEM TO IMPROVE THE ESTIMATION OF PRESSURE APPLIED TO THE FOOT

Authors:

Jan Walter Schroeder and Venketesh N. Dubey

Abstract: Peripheral neuropathy can result from diseases such as diabetes and also chemotherapy for cancer. This sensory loss can result in numbness and impairment of gait and balance. An electrocutaneous feedback system might help these patients to overcome these problems. The idea of such a device is to equip a shoe insole with force sensors that can detect pressure. The signals received by the sensor are processed and amplified in a suitable form and are redirected to an appropriate area of skin more proximal on the limb via an electrocutaneous feedback systems. In this work a low cost prototype is presented that represents a full functional electrocutaneous feedback system. The prototype uses 4 piezoresistive sensors that are placed on the insole of a shoe. The force sensors can detect the pressure that is applied to the foot. The electrocutaneous feedback is given through electrical pulses. The pulse amplitude and repetition frequency is fixed while the pulse length is controlled with the amplified signal for sensory feedback.

Paper Nr: 89
Title:

FREQUENCY CHARACTERIZATION OF A MAGNETICALLY ACTUATED MEMS RESONANT BIOSENSOR

Authors:

V. Russino

Abstract: In this work, the mass response of a resonant, CMOS (Complementary MOS) compatible MEMS sensor, oriented at the detection of diagnostic markers, is presented. The sensor is fabricated with a MEMS (Microelectro-mechanical System) post-processing method on a standard, CMOS-based VLSI technology, retaining maximum compatibility with the CMOS process flow. The mechanical resonator is based on inductive actuation and detection, and the sensing is based on the microbalance principle. A protocol for covalent bonding of organo-functional silanes (to be used as link sites for biomolecular probes) on the resonator surface is presented. The effect on the mechanical frequency response of a test mass attached to the surface is demonstrated by grafting of gold nanoparticles (NP’s) to the amino-terminated surface silanes.

Paper Nr: 93
Title:

DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF A PRESSURE TRANSDUCER AND ITS ELECTRONICS FOR ESOPHAGEAL MANOMETRY

Authors:

D. S. Ferreira and L. M. Gonçalves

Abstract: This paper reports the development and validation of strain gauge transducers and its readout electronics with the ultimate goal of integration in a commercial endoscopic capsule (EC). The deposition process of strain gauge transducers on a capsule surface, using microfabrication techniques, is described. An electronic circuit is designed, implemented and tested for the amplification of the transducer output signal. Electromechanical tests are performed on a cylindrical tube, which simulates the capsule weight and dimensions, and the obtained results allowed establishing a correlation between the output signal and the stress applied on an EC. These results represent an important step for the implementation of a more advanced capsule manometry system.

Paper Nr: 97
Title:

DESIGN OF A WIRELESS PULSE OXIMETER USING A MESH ZIGBEE SENSOR NETWORK

Authors:

José M. Castillo

Abstract: This work describes a prototype to convert a conventional pulse oximeter into a wireless device. Samples have been taken from a commercial Nellcor DS-100A probe using an FPGA. This programmable device is integrated with an XBee wireless modem; using ZigBee protocol, data is sent through the wireless network to a central server. The system generates alarms to the medical staff when vital signals are critical. Data can be saved in a database allowing the review of monitored data furthermore, with these data, future research on medicine can be started.

Paper Nr: 105
Title:

IMAGE PROCESSING AND MACHINE LEARNING FOR THE DIAGNOSIS OF MELANOMA CANCER

Authors:

Arushi Raghuvanshi and Marek Perkowski

Abstract: Melanoma cancer is one of the most dangerous and potentially deadly types of skin cancer; however, if diagnosed early, it is nearly one-hundred percent curable (UnderstMel09). Here we propose an efficient system which helps with the early diagnosis of melanoma cancer. Different image processing techniques and machine learning algorithms are evaluated to distinguish between cancerous and non-cancerous moles. Two image feature databases were created: one compiled from a dermatologist-training tool for melanoma from Hosei University and the other created by extracting features from digital pictures of lesions using a software called Skinseg. We then applied various machine learning techniques on the image feature database using a Python-based tool called Orange. The experiments suggest that among the methods tested, the combination of Bayes machine learning with Hosei image feature extraction is the best method for detecting cancerous moles. Then, using this method, a computer tool was developed to return the probability that an image is cancerous. This is a very practical application as it allows for at-home findings of the probability that a mole is cancerous. This does not replace visits to a doctor, but provides early information that allows people to be proactive in the diagnosis of melanoma cancer.

Paper Nr: 107
Title:

FLUORESCENCE SPECTROSCOPY BY DETECTION OF GLUCOSE CONCENTRATIONS IN DMEM-SOLUTIONS AND ITS PERSPECTIVES FOR NON-INVASIVE MEASUREMENT

Authors:

O. Abdallah, Q. Qananwah, A. Bolz and J. Hansmann

Abstract: An easy accessible and low-cost method for glucose concentration monitoring and diabetes management will be a great help for more than 250 millions of diabetic patients worldwide to avoid the risks and the complications caused by hyper- or hypoglycemia. This paper shows the results obtained using fluorescence spectroscopy for detecting the glucose concentrations in DMEM solutions. By irradiating DMEM solutions that have different glucose concentrations with light, a few wavelengths in UV- and visible-range for the calculations of glucose concentrations using fluorescence spectroscopy are applied and the detected signals were analyzed. For the detection of glucose concentration noninvasively using various optical methods, the interaction between light and definite glucose solutions was studied. The developed compact system will enable the application of different LASER diodes (LD`s) or light emitting diodes (LED`s) in the range of UV and NIR in an easy manner. Variable intensity, frequency and duty cycle can be adjusted for fluorescence and other optical measurements. A multi-sensor taking all perturbations into account will be a good choice for glucose monitoring. Fluorescence measurements at wavelengths below 800 nm and especially the measurements at the wavelength 485 nm give reproducible glucose concentrations results from DMEM glucose solutions at a constant temperature.

Paper Nr: 111
Title:

HIGH-DENSITY CMOS ARRAY FOR BI-DIRECTIONAL COUPLING OF ELECTROGENIC CELLS

Authors:

U. Yegin, M. Schindler, S. Ingebrandt and A. Offenhaeusser

Abstract: We present a CMOS chip with a 64x64 array of high-density pixels designed for recording electrical signals from cells and stimulating them. A high spatial resolution can be achieved, since the pixels have a pitch of 12.5 µm. Each pixel incorporates a floating-gate-field-effect-transistor with a 4.4 µm x 4.4 µm electrode coupled to its gate. The remaining components of the measurement setup required to operate the CMOS chip are also introduced. A simple post-process, required to deposit a thin film high-k (multilayers of TiO2 and HfO2) material on the chip was developed after the fabrication of the chip and is also introduced here.

Paper Nr: 112
Title:

TEXTILE CAPACITIVE ELECTROCARDIOGRAPHY FOR AN AUTOMOTIVE ENVIRONMENT

Authors:

Bhavin Chamadiya and Stephan Heuer

Abstract: Growing mobility demand in the western world intensifies the concern for automotive safety and health monitoring in daily life. This study shows one solution to integrate textile based, capacitively coupled electrocardiography into a car considering a real automotive environment. Electrodes based on conductive textile were integrated into a car seat. Contact ECG and non-contact CCECG measurements were done in different situations like driving high speed on highways, on surface streets, with various clothes and others. The influences of various car functionalities on the measurement were detected. Feasibility to measure Electrocardiography is discussed to evaluate continuous non-contact monitoring for safety, healthcare and comfort as well.

Paper Nr: 119
Title:

PULSE-TYPE NEURO DEVICES WITH TWO TIME WINDOWS IN STDP AND ITS APPLICATION TO THE MEMORY OF TEMPORAL SEQUENCES PATTERNS

Authors:

Katsutoshi Saeki and Shingo Watanabe

Abstract: Since neural networks have superior information processing functions, many investigators have attemptted to model biological neurons and neural networks. A number of recent studies of neural networks have been conducted with the purpose of applying engineering to the brain. Especially, neuro devices have been created that focus on how learning is achieved. Here, we focus on spike timing dependent synaptic plasticity (STDP) and construct pulse-type neuro devices with STDP. In this paper, we focus on two time windows in STDP, and we propose a synaptic weight generation circuit which indicates an asymmetric or a symmetric time window by changing voltages in the proposed circuit. As a result, we show that a pulse-type neuro device with two time windows in STDP stores temporal sequence output voltage patterns which conform to the temporal sequence input current patterns for memory.

Paper Nr: 123
Title:

A COMPUTERIZED SELF VISUAL ACUITY TESTING SYSTEM - Method of the Optotype Presentation and Adjustment

Authors:

WooBeom Lee and ChangYur Choi

Abstract: This paper suggests the method of the optotype presentation and adjustment for a computerized self visual acuity test. The proposed method is guaranteed credibility by ‘KS P ISO 8596’ in 2006. Also this system provides convenience to people who take an eyesight test based on gesture recognition of them. And the method of the optotype adjustment for a computerized self visual acuity test is able to measure objective eyesight that excluded subjective judgment of inspector and conjecture of subject’s memorization. According to result of experimental comparison between method of using real visual-acuity chart and the system of a computerized self visual acuity test, Our system showed the 98% consistency in the limit of the ±1 visual-acuity level error.

Paper Nr: 126
Title:

PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF ELECTROCARDIOGRAM MEASURED USING CAPACITIVE TEXTILES ON A BED

Authors:

Hong Ji Lee and Seung Min Lee

Abstract: Devices for Ubiquitous-Healthcare have been currently developed to monitor health state unconsciously. Especially, measuring electrocardiogram (ECG) non-invasively on a bed has an advantage of long-term monitoring. We developed a simple and easy-to-use ECG measurement system on the bed with conductive textile sheets. It was arranged through experiments to monitor ECG more stable. Three male subjects participated in our experiment to measure ECG with four postures; a supine, prone, right lateral, and left lateral posture. Error rates of heart rate variability and correlation of RR-intervals were analyzed to evaluate the performance of the designed system. The results showed that the performance of the developed system was affected by environmental conditions, posture types and subjects.

Paper Nr: 128
Title:

THE CONSEQUENCES OF LOW FREQUENCY AND INTENSITY ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS ON THE FREQUENCY OF MICRONUCLEI IN HeLa CELLS

Authors:

Cosmin Teodor Mihai, Gabriela Căpraru and Elena Truță

Abstract: The treatment of HeLa neoplastic cells with low frequency and intensity electromagnetic field has determined modifications of the micronuclei number, this impact being correlated with the application manner of the electromagnetic field (continuous or discontinuous). Thus, the continuous electromagnetic field has reduced the frequency of the micronuclei formation (2.91 ± 0.015 ‰), as compared to the value of control group (3.93 ± 0.023 ‰), while the discontinuously applied electromagnetic field has increased the number of micronuclei (4.92± 0.012 ‰). These variations in micronuclei number suggested that low frequency electromagnetic field interfere in different ways with the genetic material of cancerous cells, indicating that the cEMF had a protective effect upon DNA molecule, while dcEMF had a genotoxic impact. Also, the estimation of the micronuclei area has revealed that the area of micronuclei generated by dcEMF was smaller than that of cEMF.

Paper Nr: 129
Title:

DOUBLE HEADED PROBE FOR LOCAL PULSE WAVE VELOCITY ESTIMATION - A New Device for Hemodynamic Parameters Assessment

Authors:

H. C. Pereira, J. B. Simoes, J. L. Malaquias, T. Pereira, V. Almeida and E. Borges

Abstract: The present work proposes a new device for local pulse wave velocity (PWV), by using an innovative configuration of a double piezoelectric (PZ) sensor probe. PWV is assessed in one single location and involves the determination of time delay, between the signals acquired simultaneously by two PZs, 23 mm apart. The double probe (DP) is characterized in a dedicated test bench system, where two main studies were carried out. In the first one, the impulse response (IR) for each PZ sensor is determined and evaluated through the deconvolution method. In the second one, DP time resolution is estimated from a set of time delay algorithms and compared with the reference values, obtained through the signals of two pressure sensors. Results demonstrate the effectiveness of the inferred IRs in deconvolution purposes and the possibility of measure higher PWV values (≈ 19m/s), through the DP, with an error less than 10%.