BIODEVICES 2012 Abstracts


Full Papers
Paper Nr: 13
Title:

FLOW AND PARTICLE DEPOSITION IN THE TURBUHALER DPI - A CFD Simulation

Authors:

J. Milenkovic, A. H. Alexopoulos and C. Kiparissides

Abstract: In this work the steady-state flow in a commercial dry powder inhaler device (i.e.., Turbuhaler) is described. The DPI geometry is constructed in a CAD/CAM environment (i.e., CATIA v5) and then imported into GAMBIT where the geometry is discretized into a computational grid. The Navier-Stokes equations are solved using FLUENT (v6.3) and particle motion and deposition are described using an Eulerian-fluid/Lagrangian-particle approach. Flow and particle deposition for a range of mouthpiece pressure drops (i.e., 800-8800Pa), as well as particle sizes corresponding to single particles and aggregates (i.e., 0.5-20μm) are examined. The total volumetric outflow rate, the overall particle deposition as well as the particle deposition sites in the DPI are determined. The simulation results are found to agree well with available experimental data for volumetric flow and overall particle deposition.

Paper Nr: 19
Title:

TO WHAT EXTENT CAN DRY AND WATER-BASED EEG ELECTRODES REPLACE CONDUCTIVE GEL ONES? - A Steady State Visual Evoked Potential Brain-computer Interface Case Study

Authors:

Vojkan Mihajlović, Gary Garcia Molina and Jan Peuscher

Abstract: Recent technological advances in the field of skin electrodes and on-body sensors indicate a possibility of having an alternative to the traditionally used conductive gel electrodes for measuring electrical signals of the brain (electroencephalogram, EEG). This paper evaluates whether water-based and dry contact electrode solutions can replace the gel ones. The quality of the obtained signal by three headsets, each using 8 electrodes of a different type, is estimated on the steady state visual evoked potential (SSVEP) brain-computer interface (BCI) use case. The stimuli frequencies in the low (12 to 21Hz) and high (28 to 40Hz) frequency domain were used. Six people, that had different hair length and type, participated in the experiment. SSVEP response in terms of power spectra across different electrodes is compared and the impact of noise on temporal characteristics of the response is discussed. For people with shorter hair style the performance of water-based and dry electrodes comes close to the gel ones in the optimal setting. On average, the classification accuracy of 0.63 for dry and 0.88 for water-based electrodes is achieved, compared to the 0.96 obtained for gel electrodes. The theoretical maximum of the average information transfer rate across participants was 23bpm for dry, 38bpm for water-based and 67bpm for gel electrodes. Furthermore, the convenience level of all three setups was seen as comparable. These results demonstrate that, having optimized headset and electrode design for dry and water-based electrodes for people with different hair length and type, dry and water-based electrodes can replace gel ones in BCIs and Neurofeedback applications where lower communication speed is acceptable.

Paper Nr: 25
Title:

A FULLY INTEGRATED CMOS SENSOR FOR PICO-CURRENT MEASUREMENT ON SOLID-STATE NANOPORE DEVICES

Authors:

Jungsuk Kim, Kenneth D. Pedrotti and William B. Dunbar

Abstract: In this paper, an integrated high-sensitivity patch-clamp sensor is proposed to measure the ultra-low current variation of a solid-state nanopore device. This sensor amplifier consists of three stages: 1) a headstage, 2) a difference amplifier and 3) a unity-gain buffer. For the headstage, a resistive-feedback transimpedance amplifier is employed to convert the small current to a readable voltage. The addition of a programmable gain to the second-stage difference amplifier allows the maximum gain to be increased to 168dBΩ. This sensor is fabricated in a 0.35m CMOS process and is tested with an 80nm-diameter solid-state nanopore. We present a detailed circuit analysis for the low-noise patch-clamp design and its noise measurement result in this paper.

Paper Nr: 33
Title:

NITRITE BIOSENSING WITH DISPOSABLE ELECTRODE STRIPS - A Preliminary Study

Authors:

Marcelo Rodrigues, Cátia Correia, Célia M. Silveira, José J. G. Moura, Estibaliz Ochoteco, Elena Jubete and M. Gabriela Almeida

Abstract: This paper presents the results of a preliminary study on the construction of miniaturized biosensing devices for nitrite analysis in clinical samples. Following our previous works regarding the development of amperometric nitrite biosensors using the nitrite reducing enzyme (ccNiR) from Desulfovibrio desulfuricans ATCC 27774, now we aim to reduce the size of the experimental set-up according to the specific needs of biomedical applications. For this, thick-film strip electrodes made of carbon conductive inks deposited on plastic supports were modified with ccNiR previously mixed with the conductive graphite ink, in the presence of propanone or methylethylketone. Then, the enzyme electrodes were dried at 40C or 60C, to simulate the curing procedure typically done after screen-printing. In this way, the biocompatibility of ccNiR with these organic solvents and thermal treatments was evaluated and the composition of the mix enzyme/conductive ink was optimized. The analytical performance of these electrodes was satisfactory, with a sensitivity of 52 A.M-1.cm-2 within a linear range of 0.001 - 1 mM.

Paper Nr: 49
Title:

MOBILE, REAL-TIME SIMULATOR FOR A CORTICAL VISUAL PROSTHESIS

Authors:

Horace Josh, Benedict Yong and Lindsay Kleeman

Abstract: This paper presents a mobile, real-time simulator system for a cortical visual prosthesis, making use of current neurophysiological models of visuotopy. This system overcomes fundamental limitations of current simulator systems which include simplified visuotopic mapping and the lack of mobility, limiting use in open and untethered environments. A visual prosthesis simulator provides a useful demonstration and research platform for a bionic vision system. It can be used to simulate the visual results of such an implant, as well as aid in the development of algorithms and techniques that would most suitably present information to a patient. Cortical visual prostheses work by electrically stimulating the visual cortex, the part of the brain primarily responsible for vision, and eliciting visual perceptions known as ‘phosphenes’. The simulator’s main function is to translate a scene provided by a camera sensor into a low resolution form that closely mimics the phosphene pattern produced by a cortical visual prosthesis. Preliminary psychophysics testing has suggested that in some situations it can be advantageous to have four different levels of intensity rather than two. It was also found that there is a learning effect associated with continued use of the system which would need further psychophysics study.

Paper Nr: 54
Title:

AUTONOMOUS SENTINELS FOR THE DETECTION OF INVASIVE PATHOGENS

Authors:

Howard Clyde Wikle III, Suiqiong Li, Aleksandr Simonian and Bryan A. Chin

Abstract: This paper describes the results of a research project to investigate and develop an autonomous pathogen detection and capture system that mimics the function of naturally occurring biological defensive systems, such as white blood cells. The autonomous sentinel system is envisioned to have the capability of seeking out invasive pathogens in liquid environments, detecting and capturing them. Once detected and captured the invasive pathogens can be removed, by retrieving the sentinels using a magnetic field. The sentinels are composed of two main parts: a magnetoelastic resonator whose motion and detection functions is actuated and monitored using magnetic fields; and a bio-probe that is immobilized onto the resonator surface and captures specific target pathogens. The freestanding sentinels require no on-board power for motion or to signal detection of a target pathogen. Upon contact with the target pathogen, the bio-molecular recognition element on the sentinel will bind with the target cell. This will cause a mass change of the sentinel, which results in a change in the sentinel's resonant frequency and the instantaneous detection of the target pathogen. Similar to white blood cells, the autonomous sentinels when placed in a liquid analyte will move through the analyte, capture and disable the target pathogens and signal their detection. The objective of this paper is to demonstrate proof-in-principal of the concept of autonomous sentinels.

Paper Nr: 59
Title:

QUANTIFICATION OF MUSCLE FATIGUE WITH WAVELET ANALYSIS BASED ON EMG DURING MYOELECTRICAL STIMULATION

Authors:

M. Yochum, T. Bakir, R. Lepers and S. Binczak

Abstract: We propose a device dedicated to real time analysis of electromyograms (EMG) under myoelectrical stimulation (ES). The muscular fatigue analysis, which is obtained by the use of a dedicated analog circuit and a processing part, is the main purpose of this study. The description of a hardware device which incorporates an electro-stimulator and an electromyogram amplifier combined to a computer is detailed. Then, we present a muscular fatigue analysis part based on wavelet decomposition in order to extract a fatigue index, which is confronted with synthetic and experimental data. We conclude that the CWT index applies well to M waves. The noise sensitivity is investigated.

Paper Nr: 65
Title:

CONTROLLER DESIGN FOR A STANCE-CONTROL KNEE-ANKLE-FOOT ORTHOSIS BASED ON OPTIMIZATION TECHNIQUES

Authors:

S. H. HosseinNia, F. Romero, B. Vinagre, F. J. Alonso and I. Tejado

Abstract: Design of active orthosis is a challenging problem from both the dynamic simulation and control points of view. The redundancy problem of the simultaneous human-orthosis actuation is an interesting exercise to solve concerning the analytical and computational cost effectiveness. The physiological static optimization approach tries to solve the actuation sharing problem. Its objective is to quantify the contributions of muscles and active orthosis to the net joint torques in order to select the proper actuator for the joint. Depending on the disability of each patient, different controllers can be designed. As a matter of fact, the duration of the gait cycle for each patient should be different. In this paper, a PI controller is designed whose parameters are tuned by optimizing a cost function which takes into account the patients muscle power and the error of the knee angle with the reference value. Moreover, the final time is obtained by minimizing the mean of integral squared errors. The performance of the method is shown by designing the controller for three types of patients, ordered from low to high disability. The objective of this work is to use optimal control techniques based on physiological static optimization approach to the design of active orthosis and its control.

Paper Nr: 73
Title:

AN INTEGRATED ACTIVE-RC POWERLINE NOTCH FILTER FOR BIOPOTENTIAL ACQUISITION DEVICES

Authors:

Hussain Alzaher, Noman Tasadduq and Yaqub Mahnashi

Abstract: An integrable 60Hz continuous time active-RC notch filter is presented. This is made possible through replacing passive resistors by R-2R ladders providing area saving of approximately 120 times. The proposed filter is to be embedded into instrumentation amplifier for biopotential measuring devices. Simulation results of a fully differential 4th-order filter show notch depth of 68dB and THD of better than -70dB while consuming 18μW.

Paper Nr: 76
Title:

MULTI-SOURCE ENERGY HARVESTING POWER GENERATORS FOR INSTRUMENTED IMPLANTS - Towards the Development of a Smart Hip Prosthesis

Authors:

M. Soares dos Santos, Jorge A. F. Ferreira, A. Ramos, Ricardo Pascoal, Raul Morais dos Santos, Nuno M. Silva, José A. O. Simões, M. J. C. S. Reis, Camila N. Boeri, António Festas and Paulo M. Santos

Abstract: Very few developments have been done to provide electric power supply of instrumented hip prosthesis. Actually, vibration-powered generators are the most appropriate mechanisms for this kind of application’s environment. This paper describes the first attempt to develop the concept of energy harvesting from multiple energy sources applied in the same hip implant. Exploiting the potential of the three angular movements over the femoral component, namely in the abduction-adduction, flexion-extension and inward-outward rotation axes, three inboard vibration-based mechanisms were developed in order to ensure electric power supply from multiple energy sources. A total of 53.7 μJ/s was harvested by a translation movement-based electromagnetic energy generator when a sinusoidal function with an amplitude of 40 mm and a frequency of 4 Hz was applied. A rotation movement-based electromagnetic energy generator has harvested 0.77 μJ/s when a sinusoidal function with an amplitude of 60º and a frequency of 2.5 Hz was used. The piezoelectric energy harvester has achieved 0.6 μJ/s with the application of a sinusoidal function with an amplitude of 200 N and a frequency of 4 Hz. Besides, its ability of being fully autonomous, operating without expiry and maintenance, while offering safety during its entire lifetime are relevant features. This paper should provide the basis for the development of smart hip prosthesis with the ability to fix the aseptic implant loosening problem.

Paper Nr: 84
Title:

A PORTABLE REAL-TIME MONITORING SYSTEM FOR KINESITHERAPIC HAND REHABILITATION EXERCISES

Authors:

Danilo Pani, Gianluca Barabino, Alessia Dessì, Alessandro Mathieu and Luigi Raffo

Abstract: Rheumatic diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis and systemic sclerosis, may seriously reduce the quality of life of the patients. Nowadays, their progress can be controlled only through personalised pharmacological treatments. Kinesitherapy can also help in faster movement recovery, also contrasting the disability worsening. This paper presents a portable low-cost system for the real-time quantitative monitoring and evaluation of hand rehabilitation exercises. The system, based on a MSP430 microcontroller central unit, provides a platform for the analysis of fine characteristics hitherto unavailable of 4 exercises required for the hand rehabilitation in rheumatic patients. The systemcan be controlled, through a Bluetooth connection, by a graphical user interface running on the physician’s PC. The first prototypical systems have been developed for experimental outpatient trials.

Short Papers
Paper Nr: 5
Title:

DIABETES COMPLICATIONS - Development of a New Tool for Obliterating Arteriopathy of the Lower Limbs Detection

Authors:

Stéphane Roeslin, Nadège Marthouret, Louis Benazet, Christophe Roncato, Gabriel Camelot, Anca Loppinet, Xavier Racadot, Sylvie Grandperret, Hayet Bourezane, Christian Pieralli, Lionel Pazart and Bruno Wacogne

Abstract: Obliterating arteriopathy of the lower limbs (OALL) is a common complication in diabetes. This vasculopathy, which is associated with mild injury and with the diabetic neuropathy, is the source of diabetic foot ulcers which precede approximately 85% of amputations. Simple measures may avoid this dreaded complication if it is identified in time. OALL detection is currently undertaken by measuring ankle systolic pressure. The latter could be evaluated with microcirculatory technique but these techniques have a number of limitations: time consumption and cost. OALL detection is therefore limited to a small number of specialized units. In order to allow detection of OALL in ambulatory medicine, we propose a simple system based on photoplethysmography. The idea is to apply a pre-set "warning" pressure to the patient's toe and to optically check if arterial pulsation still exists. If not, the patient is directed to the adequate hospital unit for full diagnosis. This "warning" system which can easily be used at the general practitioner’s office is meant to help detecting the OALL at an early stage, hence reducing the number of amputations. In this position paper, we present the system, some early results and we propose a discussion concerning the screening of OALL.

Paper Nr: 7
Title:

FRAMEWORK FOR QOS PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT ON BIOMEDICAL WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS

Authors:

Carlos Abreu, Manuel Ricardo and Paulo Mendes

Abstract: A Biomedical Wireless Sensor Network (BWSN) is a special Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) with a small number of nodes designed for medical applications. These networks must ensure that medical data is delivered reliably and efficiently, in order to fulfil a set of pre-established Quality of Service (QoS) requirements. In this way, the research community have been proposing new solutions to improve QoS in WSN, namely in routing protocols and power consumption efficiency. However, there still a need for appropriate QoS guaranties in BWSN. In this paper, possible QoS requirements of BWSN are discussed, together with a framework to automatically evaluate the performance of such QoS techniques. That framework was used together with simulators and operating systems appropriate for WSN, COOJA and Contiki OS, and proved to be a valuable tool for a proper evaluation of QoS parameters and metrics.

Paper Nr: 14
Title:

NANOSTRUCTURED VS. CARBONACEOUS BIOSENSORS - Comparative Studies for Detection of Phenolic Compounds

Authors:

Constantin Apetrei, Jose Antonio de Saja and Maria Luz Rodriguez-Mendez

Abstract: The biosensing properties of tyrosinase biosensors were investigated for two different immobilization matrixes: carbon paste and Langmuir-Blodgett thin film. In both cases the electron mediator was the lutetium (III) bisphthalocyaninate. The electrochemical responses of biosensors towards phenol and catechol were analyzed and compared. The tyrosinase maintains its bioactivity well within the immobilization matrices. A clearly defined reduction current proportional to the phenolic compounds concentration was observed in cyclic voltammetry, which attributed to the reduction of enzymatically produced quinone at the electrode surface. It was demonstrated that the biosensor based on Langmuir-Blodgett thin film shows the best performances in terms of kinetics and detection limit for the phenolic compounds analyzed.

Paper Nr: 15
Title:

THERMAL NOISE MODEL OF CAPACITIVE ACTIVE ELECTRODE FOR INDIRECT-CONTACT ECG

Authors:

Yong Gyu Lim

Abstract: The indirect-contact ECG (IDC-ECG) shows large background noise in comparison with conventional ECG measurement. To improve the signal quality, close study of the background noise is necessary. This study was carried out to investigate how much the thermal noise influences the background noise in IDC-ECG. To do so, the thermal noise model was built for the active electrode. And then, the parameters which determine the thermal noise were estimated by measuring the gain of the active electrode. Finally, the level of thermal noise was estimated and compared with actual background noise. The results show that the thermal noise is the dominant component of background noise and the intrinsic noise of the preamp’s active devices is negligible.

Paper Nr: 23
Title:

MICROLENSES FOR STEREOSCOPIC IMAGE FORMATION

Authors:

R. P. Rocha, J. P. Carmo and J. H. Correia

Abstract: This paper presents microlenses for integration on a stereoscopic image sensor in CMOS technology for use in biomedical devices. It is intended to provide an image sensor with a stereoscopic vision. An array of microlenses potentiates stereoscopic vision and maximizes the color fidelity. An array of optical filters tuned at the primary colors will enable a multicolor usage. The material selected for fabricating the microlens was the AZ4562 positive photoresist. The reflow method applied to the photoresist allowing the fabrication of microlenses with high reproducibility.

Paper Nr: 24
Title:

AN ALTERNATIVE METHOD FOR MEASURING HUMAN RESPIRATORY IMPEDANCE

Authors:

Robin De Keyser and Clara M. Ionescu

Abstract: The Forced Oscillation Technique (FOT) denotes a non-invasive lung function test which serves as a medical diagnostic tool to measure human respiratory impedance. The FOT principle is based on superimposing air pressure oscillations onto the normal breathing waves of the subject, measuring both air flow and air pressure at the mouth and analyzing the data with signal processing techniques which apply to linear systems. The motivation to eliminate the need for flow measurement arises from i) economic reasons, because measurement of air flow in this case requires the presence of an expensive component, the pneumotachograph, in the FOT device and ii) innovative aspects. The present work assessed the possibility that the requirement to measure flow could be eliminated if the transformation from excitation signal to measured pressure in the FOT device (given by the internal impedances of the device) is known. This conceptual solution was theoretically proven by analyzing the electrical circuit which models these transformations. Measurements were conceived and performed in order to estimate these quantities.

Paper Nr: 27
Title:

BIOFUNCTIONAL INTERFACES FOR BIOSENSING APPLICATIONS

Authors:

Saroja Mantha, Virginia Davis, Bryan Chin and Aleksandr Simonian

Abstract: Layer-by-layer assembled CNTs customized with biopolymers has recently attracted a great attention as a simple, robust and inexpensive method for creating nanocomposite thin films with a high degree of control that may provide potentially powerful interfaces for multiple applications, including but not limited to biomedicine and biosensing. Intercalation of oppositely charged polymers and catalytically active proteins on the CNT surface allow assembling of unique nanointerfaces with the ability to detect single or multiple analytes (Hitzky et al., 2005; Kumar and Swetha, 2010; Dujardin and Mann, 2002; Palin et al., 2005; Geetha et al., 2006; Yan et al., 2010; Riccardi et al., 2006; Darder et al., 2005; Liu et al., 2004; Raravikar et al., 2005; Du et al., 2004; Katz and Willner, 2004; Wang, 2005; Allen et al., 2007; Ghindilis et al., 1997; Joshi et al., 2005; Chikkaveeraiah et al., 2009; Wang et al., 2006). The aim of this study is to design of multifunctional systems for the detection of numerous compounds, such as glucose and OP neurotoxins, in one platform using nanocomposite interface. A redox enzyme glucose oxidase (GOX) and organophosphate hydrolase (OPH), a phosphotriesterase catalyzing degradation of phosphorus-containing toxins and pesticides, were covalently immobilized on the multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWNT) surface using EDC/NHS chemistry. Layer-by-layer assembly (LBL) of oppositely charged CNTs customized with different biopolymers were examined on several substrates including glass or silicon slides and glassy carbon electrode. The interface assembly were characterized using Thermogravimetric analysis, Raman spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The catalytic activity of the biopolymer layers were characterized using absorption spectroscopy and electrochemical analysis. Experimental results show that this approach yields an easily fabricated catalytic multilayer with well-defined structures and properties for biosensing applications whose interface can be reactivated via a simple procedure.

Paper Nr: 32
Title:

FoF1-ATPase STATOR REGULATION STUDIED WITH A RESONANCE MODEL

Authors:

Yao-Gen Shu and Zhong-Can Ou-Yang

Abstract: The FoF1-ATPase activity was regulated through external links on the exposed stator. The regulation tendency of synthesis was the same with that of hydrolysis. A resonance model has been proposed to illustrate these regulation phenomena. The novel model not only has deepened our understanding of the “binding change mechanism”, but also was very useful to develop the rotary motor into a biosensor.

Paper Nr: 35
Title:

A MAGNETIC COUPLING TO IMPROVE PLACEMENT OF GASTROENTERAL FEEDING TUBES

Authors:

David Cronin, Tadhg Lambe and Pádraig Cantillon-Murphy

Abstract: Percutaneous Endoscopic Gastrostomy (PEG) is a non operative endoscopic technique to place a transabdominal (from outside the abdomen through the gastric wall and into the stomach) gastric feeding tube. It is the preferred method of eneteral feeding in patients who would otherwise have inadequate nutritional intake due to a number of underlying illnesses. During the PEG procedure, the feeding tube can deviate from its intended path, perforate organs and surrounding tissues leading to complications. We propose a novel technique to alleviate or eliminate these concerns using magnetic coupling. This technique forces the tube to pass through a specified path, compressing tissues between the gastric and abdominal walls such that the tube cannot deviate from its intended path. This modified PEG procedure could secure a safer tract for insertion, decrease procedural time and limit user variability, with hypothesised benefits including shorter procedural times and lower complication rates. The magnetic coupling mechanism has been modelled using analytical tools with experimental validation. The approach has been demonstrated in a bench-top anatomical model and may be of use in applications beyond the PEG procedure including endoscopic instrument positioning on the gastric wall.

Paper Nr: 38
Title:

INCUBATION TYPE PLANAR PATCH CLAMP BIOSENSOR - Basic Performances

Authors:

Tsuneo Urisu, Hidetaka Uno, Zhi-Hong Wang, Senthil Kumar Obuliraj, Noriko Takada, Masaki Aoyama, Mitsukazu Suzui, Toshifumi Asano, Toru Ishizuka and Hiromu Yawo

Abstract: The biosensors based on the incubation type planar patch clamp method was developed and the basic properties were investigated. Usefulness of light-gated ionchannel method on the performance of the device was confirmed. The excess current noise and the thermal noise due to the micropore resistance and the seal resistance were the main sources of the noise, and the noise level of the developed biosensor was 7 pA at the 1 kHz low pass filter. This value is slightly larger than the single ionchannel current level (~4pA) of TRPV1. We consider that the developed device has a sufficient performance for the whole cell measurements, and extremely suitable for the high throughput screening application with neural network, in which incubation function is essentially necessary.

Paper Nr: 39
Title:

A 130NM ASIC FOR EMG SIGNAL ACQUISITION TO CONTROL A HAND PROSTHETIC

Authors:

Lait Abu Saleh, Wjatscheslaw Galjan, Jakob Tomasik, Dietmar Schroeder and Wolfgang H. Krautschneider

Abstract: A mixed-signal chip in 130nm Technology is described. The chip acquires EMG signals from five differential inputs. The signals are amplified, multiplexed and digitized inside the developed chip. The ASIC is optimised for low power and low noise and is intended for application in medical implants. Furthermore, the chip provides a configuration options for several parameters for the analogue part of the chip. The chip has been tested by recording EMG signals from implanted Myo-Electrodes.

Paper Nr: 40
Title:

A NEW LASER DOPPLER FLOWMETER PROTOTYPE FOR MICROCIRCULATION SKIN DEPTH MONITORING - In Vitro Validation and In Vivo Preliminar Results

Authors:

Edite Figueiras, Rita Campos, Ricardo Oliveira, Luís F. Requicha Ferreira and Anne Humeau-Heurtier

Abstract: A new laser Doppler flowmeter with depth discrimination capabilities is being developed to monitor skin microvascular perfusion. This new laser Doppler flowmeter is a multi-wavelength device with different spaced detection optical fibres. In order to obtain an in vitro validation of this prototype, measurements in two phantoms, one consisting of Teflon® microtubes and the other consisting of acrylic plates, are performed. The prototype validatation in vivo is also presented. Results obtained for both validations are compared with the ones obtained with a commercial laser Doppler flowmeter. The measurements show quite good agreements between both flowmeters.

Paper Nr: 41
Title:

ASARM - A System for CFS/ME Monitoring and Treatment

Authors:

Philip McDermott, Steve Pettifer and Paul Abeles

Abstract: CFS/ME (Chronic Fatigue Syndrome/Myalgic Encephalomyelitis) affects up to 2.5% of adults in the UK and USA and between 1% and 2% of children in the UK. Sufferers report that they are low on energy, and find performing everyday activities difficult. The illness is commonly treated using Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT), which aims to help patients learn how to build up their energy levels in a gradual way, and how best to spend and preserve their energy. A crucial aspect of this treatment is for the health care professional to monitor and record how the patient spends time on a day-to-day basis, then prescribe appropriate and precise baseline levels for periods of rest, sleep and activity. These levels are then gradually adjusted as the patient’s condition improves. Current methods typically rely on paper diaries, however, these offer little guidance to the patient and are time consuming for the health care professional to analyse. The ASARM (Advanced Sleep, Activity and Rest Monitoring) system combines an electronic diary with automated recording of actigraphy data, with the aim of improving the process of assessing, monitoring, prescribing for, and then treating patients with the condition.

Paper Nr: 43
Title:

MULTIVOXEL MR SPECTROSCOPY TOOL FOR BRAIN CANCER DETECTION IN NEURONAVIGATION - Performance

Authors:

Juan José Fuertes, Valery Naranjo, Pablo González, Ángela Bernabeu, Mariano Alcañiz and Javier Sanchez

Abstract: This work presents a simple and interactive spectroscopic tool to help clinicians for brain cancer detection. Firstly, Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS) and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) are registered to perform brain analysis. After processing the spectroscopic signals with HLSVD method for water suppression, zero-filling and phase-correction algorithms, and apodization functions to improve the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), the metabolite brain maps are generated in order to analyze brain composition. A 3D-spatial distribution of the anatomical and spectroscopic images and how they are registered are presented to facilitate surgery planning. The goal is to generate metabolite brain maps which can be merged with anatomical images in the neuronavigator to provide the surgeon with the exact point where performing the biopsy.

Paper Nr: 45
Title:

X-REPORT BREAST: IT TOOLS TO EARLY DETECT BREAST CANCER THROUGH OPTICAL IMAGING - Dynamic Optical Breast Imaging, DOBI

Authors:

Fulvio Casali, Cinzia Mambretti, Silvia Bellini and Mirella Bernabò

Abstract: Breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer deaths in women today; according to the American Cancer Society, about 1.3 million women will be diagnosed with breast cancer annually worldwide and about 465,000 will die from this disease. In the western world, its incidence in females in premenopausal status results similar or superior to the incidence in females in postmenopausal status. Therefore, it is imperative to identify diagnostic tools able to detect breast cancer in young women from the very early stages. This paper presents an IT application developed to support Medical Doctors in diagnosing and reporting with an innovative non-radiating, non-invasive optically-based breast cancer detection system, suitable for scanning of young women. This system - ComfortScan - relies on a methodology – DOBI, Dynamic Optical Breast Imaging - based upon the use of a red monochromatic light beam and able to identify neoangiogenetic areas related to the onset of cancer. The application – X-Report Breast – interprets the images captured by ComfortScan and provides automatic reporting and diagnosis. X-Report Breast proves to be highly valuable in supporting the early diagnosis of breast cancers with ComfortScan, increasing the survival probability and diminishing the invasive surgical impacts.

Paper Nr: 51
Title:

TOWARD THE OPTIMAL ARCHITECTURE OF AN ASIC FOR NEUROSTIMULATION

Authors:

Mario A. Meza Cuevas, Lait Abu Saleh, Dietmar Schroeder and Wolfgang Krautschneider

Abstract: Electrical Neurostimulation has been effective in several medical therapies and also for restoring physiological, sensory and neuromuscular deficits. The rectangular pulse waveform has been used as a standard shape for neural stimulation. However, it has been shown that non-rectangular waveforms provide a more energy-efficient neural stimulation. An ASIC has been developed composed of a stimulator, capable of driving several current waveforms, and an analog channel for biosignal acquisition. The design is implemented in 130 nm / 1.2 V CMOS technology, requiring a silicon area of 0.696 mm2. Experimental results show that the stimulator can generate analog signals from a digital input of 8 bits. The output stage can drive up to ±9.8 µA, with a DNL and INL of 0.47 and 1.05 LSB, respectively. Its SFDR is 50.2 dB. And it consumes a maximum of 128.12 µW. The analog input channel presents a power consumption of 140 µW, a gain of 52.2 dB, a bandwidth of 0.5 – 1130 Hz and 10 µVrms of noise.

Paper Nr: 52
Title:

PROPOSAL FOR A FILTERLESS FLUORESCENCE SENSOR FOR SNP GENOTYPING

Authors:

K. Yamasaki, H. Nakazawa, N. Misawa, M. Ishida and K. Sawada

Abstract: This study describes a biosensor for single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping based on the filterless fluorescence detection methods. The filterless fluorescence sensor is able to distinguish lights with more than two different wavelengths without optical filters, mirrors, and gratings. From the final results, we observed that emission lights form the “fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)” and the “sulforhodamine 101 acid chloride (Texas Red)”, which is a few kinds of fluorescent dyes commonly used in SNP genotyping, were detected with less interference using the filterless fluorescence sensor. Thus, our approach is effective for SNP genotyping with low cost and high portability.

Paper Nr: 55
Title:

APPLICATION OF THE PHOTODYNAMIC THERAPY IN MEDICINE AND DENTISTRY - Literature Review on Photodynamic and Antimicrobial Photodynamic Therapy

Authors:

Zuzanna Oruba, Maria Chomyszyn-Gajewska and Wojciech Macyk

Abstract: Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is recently being recognized as an attractive, non-invasive and alternative treatment method for precancerous lesions and superficial cancers. PDT has many advantages when compared with conventional treatment modalities. It has also been used for the photoinactivation of microbes. There is an increasing interest in the practical application of antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) in many branches of dentistry, especially in periodontology, for the management of such conditions as chronic periodontitis or periimplantitis. The aim of the present paper was to discuss the application of photodynamic therapy in medicine and dentistry. The results of many so far published studies seem to be very promising indicating at the same time that further research is needed to establish the optimal protocol for effective photodestruction of tumor cells and microorganisms.

Paper Nr: 58
Title:

EXPERIMENTAL APPARATUS FOR FINGER ECG BIOMETRICS

Authors:

Renato Lourenço, Paulo Leite, André Lourenço, Hugo Silva, Ana Fred and David Coutinho

Abstract: Current Electrocardiographic (ECG) signal acquisition methods are generally highly intrusive, as they involve the use of pre-gelled electrodes and cabled sensors placed directly on the person, at the chest or limbs level. Moreover, systems that make use of alternative conductive materials to overcome this issue, only provide heart rate information and not the detailed signal itself. We present a comparison and evaluation of two types of dry electrodes as interface with the skin, targeting wearable and low intrusiveness applications, which enable ECG measurement without the need for any apparatus permanently fitted to the individual. In particular, our approach is targeted at ECG biometrics using signals collected at the hand or finger level. A custom differential circuit with virtual ground was also developed for enhanced usability. Our work builds upon the current stateof-the-art in sensoring devices and processing tools, and enables novel data acquisition settings through the use of dry electrodes. Experimental evaluation was performed for Ag/AgCl and Electrolycra materials, and results show that both materials exhibit adequate performance for the intended application.

Paper Nr: 62
Title:

DEVELOPMENT OF A PULSE OXIMETER AND BLOOD PRESSURE MEASUREMENT DEVICE

Authors:

Ana Fé, Joana Sousa and Hugo Gamboa

Abstract: The aim of this study was to develop a device that measures both oxygen saturation (SpO2) and Blood Pressure (BP), non-invasively, continuously and without a cuff. The pulse oximeter was developed for transmission and reflection mode, for use in finger and wrist, respectively. The oxygen saturation results obtained with the developed device placed on the wrist reveled an high relation with an market device. For BP measurement there were tested 3 different combination of sensors localizations to obtain Pulse Transit Time (PTT): ECG and pulse oximeter on the finger, ECG and pulse oximeter on the wrist and pulse oximeter on the wrist and photoplethismogram on finger, and two calibration modes: for each subject - without input parameters - and general - with one input parameter (height). The results reveled better correlation between the BP estimated with the first calibration and the reference method (cuff-based) than for the second calibration.

Paper Nr: 64
Title:

A FRONT-END STAGE FOR NEURAL SIGNAL RECORDING BASED ON A SIGMA-DELTA MODULATOR

Authors:

Caterina Carboni, Daniela Loi and Massimo Barbaro

Abstract: A new device for peripheral neural signals recording is presented. The designed system is composed by an analog and a digital part. The analog part, to be integrated on an implantable CMOS chip, is kept as simple as possible and hosts a low noise first order pre- amplifier/pre-filtering stage that provides a 46dB gain in the bandwidth 800Hz􀀀7:2kHz and a 16-bit 3rd order sigma delta modulator. A highly selective band-pass filter is implemented into the digital domain, incorporated in the decimator block of the sigma-delta converter; in this way it is possible to reduce total area (which is 0:4mm2 for a single input channel) and power consumption (250μW, single channel) in the integrated, implantable module. Simulation results prove the capability of the proposed system to record signals whose magnitude is in the order of tens of microvolts thanks to the low Input Referred Noise (IRN) of 2:4μVrms of the input stage.

Paper Nr: 67
Title:

W2M2: WIRELESS WEARABLE MODULAR MONITOR - A Multifunctional Monitoring System for Rehabilitation

Authors:

Antonio J. Salazar, Ana S. Silva, Claudia Silva, Carla M. Borges, Miguel V. Correia, Rubim S. Santos and João P. Vilas-Boas

Abstract: Wearable/portable biometric/physiological monitoring devices are rapidly becoming a recognized alternative in medicine, rehabilitation and sports. Developments in sensors, energy harvesting, embedded technology, smart textile, to mention a few, are driving the field to more seamless and complex solutions, sometimes part of pervasive strategies for activity monitoring. Additionally, the number of sensors forming part of wearable solutions seems to be incrementing thanks to miniaturization and lowering components cost. Consequently medical and rehabilitation protocols and standards are undergoing the slow process required for adaptation to such emerging trends. This article presents a simple, modular, low-cost, wearable device originally intended for rehabilitation data gathering. Such device was based on commercially available components which can be assembled and managed by physicians, therapist and other healthcare personnel through a proposed platform. The objective is the familiarization and even active inclusion of healthcare personnel in the technological development process and, more importantly, the incorporation of electronic data acquisition in their procedures.

Paper Nr: 69
Title:

IMPLEMENTATION AND EVALUATION OF A PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AND ENERGY EXPENDITURE ALGORITHM IN A SENSIUM™-BASED BODY-WORN DEVICE

Authors:

M. Hernandez Silveira, S.-S. Ang, T. Mehta, B. Wang and A. Burdett

Abstract: It is well known that sedentary life style lead to conditions such as obesity and diabetes. In recent years, there has been increasing interest in devices capable of measuring activity energy expenditure (AEE) and physical activity intensity (PAI) without disrupting the activities of daily living. In this paper we introduce a portable and light-weight device based on our SensiumTM technology. Unlike existing commercially available devices, the latter can measure both AEE and PAI in a real-time basis and convey the resultant calculations wirelessly to a remote PC and/or sever. Such calculations are carried out by means of a mathematical model, which combines heart rate and accelerometer information to produce PAI and AEE estimations. The model was calibrated against a reference indirect calorimetry system. In particular, simulated annealing was used to adjust the model parameters so as to allow a closer match between the predicted and reference values. The resulting model was tested using a separate dataset with reference to indirect calorimetry. The 95% prediction interval and the Spearman’s correlation coefficient (r) for PAI were found to be [-0.1307, 0.171] kJ/kg/min and 0.903 (p<0.001) respectively. In addition, the results revealed that there is agreement between SensiumTM and a similar reference (validated) device.

Paper Nr: 70
Title:

OPTIMIZATION OF EFFICIENCY, REGULATION AND SPECIFIC ABSORPTION RATE OF A TRANSCUTANEOUS ENERGY TRANSMITTER WITH RESONANT CAPACITOR

Authors:

Daniela Wolter Ferreira and Luiz Lebensztajn

Abstract: The induced current density and Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) in the skin around a Transcutaneous Energy Transmitter (TET) was analyzed. The considered TET was projected with serial resonant capacitor and had its efficiency, regulation and SAR optimized by a multi-objective genetic algorithm (MGA), considering a range of TET parameters. A surrogate approach (Kriging) was also used to model the objective functions and support the optimization with less computational cost.

Paper Nr: 80
Title:

ELECTRICAL STIMULATION OF THE TRANSCUTANEOUS POSTERIOR TIBIAL NERVE FOR TREATING URINARY INCONTINENCE DUE TO NEUROGENIC HYPERACTIVE BLADDER IN MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS

Authors:

Hellen Orlando Veloso, Karla de Castro Cardoso, Fabiana S. B. Perez, Luciana R. Tenório Peixoto, Cristiano Jacques Miosso and Adson F. da Rocha

Abstract: This study evaluates the therapeutic effectiveness of Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation (TENS) of the posterior tibial nerve, for treating urinary incontinence (UI) due to detrusor overactivity (DO) in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Five volunteers having positive cutaneous plantar reflexes and intact innervation of the anterior tibial participated in the study. Individuals with a positive Babinski reflex were excluded. We applied 10 sessions of TENS currents (20 Hz, 200 milliseconds, tetrapolar), over a period of 5 weeks (2 sessions per week). The treatment was monitored through a Urogynecology Physiotherapeutic Assessment Questionnaire and by a Voiding Log. We observed a reduction in the average frequency of miction, as well as decreased nocturia; also, the urge incontinence symptoms in the treated patients were cleared up.

Paper Nr: 83
Title:

DESIGN OF A SACRO-LUMBAR ANTERIOR ROOT STIMULATOR IMPLANT FOR EXERCISE AND UROLOGICAL FUNCTIONS

Authors:

Pablo Aqueveque, Nick Donaldson, Anne Vanhoestenberghe and Antoine Nonclercq

Abstract: Specifications for an updated implantable stimulator, to restore voluntary bladder and bowel voiding, some sexual functions, isometric leg muscle exercise and cycling, are presented in this paper. The stimulation system is composed of a subcutaneous implantable stimulator and an external controller. This implant is based on previous work by the Implanted Devices Group (IDG) of University College London, mainly the SARSI and LARSI implant systems. Using up-to-date technology we are working to make the device smaller and, cheaper while ensuring its reliability. The work involves the design of a hermetic (water proof) package in ceramic technology, a custom integrated circuit for the implant, as well as an external control box with a user-friendly interface.

Paper Nr: 86
Title:

THIN FLEXIBLE POLYMER-BASED ENERGY SYSTEMS FOR LOW-POWER WIRELESS MONITORING DEVICES

Authors:

Clint Landrock, Bozena Kaminska, Yindar Chuo, Badr Omrane and Jeydmer Aristizabal

Abstract: In this work we present the novel design for a polymer based energy harvesting and storage system for thin flexible wearable biomedical devices. The energy system employs novel long lasting polymer solar cells and polymer hybrid sodium-ion super capacitors capable of both immediately storing harvested photo energy and slowly discharging power for micro to milli-watt devices. The polymer nature of this platform system makes its suitable for roll-to-roll print manufacturing, supporting applications requiring high volume and low cost. We present performance results for the two energy system components along with results for an integrated single cell energy system.

Paper Nr: 89
Title:

A TECHNOLOGICAL AND STATISTICAL STATE-OF-THE-ART STUDY REGARDING ACTIVE MOTION-ORIENTED ASSISTIVE DEVICES

Authors:

Daniel Pina, António Augusto Fernandes, Joaquim Gabriel Mendes and Renato Natal Jorge

Abstract: Active orthoses and powered exoskeletons, among other denominations, are devices made to attach to one or several human limbs in order to assist or replace its wearer’s movement through means of electronically controlled actuators and/or mechanical brakes. The technology developed for these devices can be used for rehabilitation, general strength enhancement for industrial or military purposes, among other situations. In order to create a comprehensive state-of-the-art work for this class of devices, several online scientific databases were used to gather articles related to this subject. Afterwards, a custom database was created to contain, organize and cross the information gathered from each relevant article. This work presents statistical results regarding the actuation technologies, the man-machine interface sensors and the corresponding interpretation algorithms. There is also a brief study about the localization of the scientific research, according to the targeted body part of the active device. The results show that the DC Motor is, by a wide margin, the most used actuator technology. This margin is reduced when wearable devices with weight constraints are developed. The electromyographic sensors are the most widely used sensors, but when these are grouped into physical variable classes, the force-related sensors show a higher number of occurrences. Regarding the processing algorithms required for the man-machine interface, it is often required to develop a custom algorithm for these devices.

Paper Nr: 98
Title:

SEISMOCARDIOGRAPHY: A NOVEL APPLICATION FOR THE NON-INVASIVE ASSESSMENT OF THE FIRST MAXIMAL DERIVATIVE OF LEFT VENTRICULAR PRESSURE

Authors:

Melonie Burrows, Graeme Jahns, Geoffrey Houlton, Berry van Gelder and Frank Marcus

Abstract: Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) results in improved clinical status in patients with heart failure and left ventricular dyssynchrony. One third of CRT patients fail to respond due to the inability to 1) identify non-responders prior to treatment, 2) optimize coronary sinus lead placement for left ventricular pacing and 3) optimize the atrio-ventricular (A-V) and inter-ventricular (V-V) intervals. Although invasive measurements of first maximal derivative of left ventricular pressure (dP/dtmax) are used to optimize lead placement and A-V and V-V intervals in CRT, it would be preferable to have a non-invasive assessment of dP/dtmax. Echocardiographic dyssynchrony and left ventricular function are current parameters for non-invasively evaluating responders to CRT, but they are not recommended due to their poor reproducibility. We applied recent advances in technology to develop a device called the digital ballistocardiograph (dBG®), which assesses the mechanical function of the heart using triaxial accelerometry. We show that dBG® cardiac events are valid in comparison to 2D transthoracic echocardiography and reliable in comparison to cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. We present preliminary data to support our position that the dBG® could be used as a non-invasive assessment of dP/dtmax in heart failure patients to identify responders and optimize CRT.

Paper Nr: 99
Title:

SmarTTransfuser - A Biochip System for the Final ABO Compatibility Test

Authors:

Karine Charrière, Jean Sebastien Guerrini-Chappuis, Bruno Wacogne, Alain Rouleau, Celine Elie-Caille, Christian Pieralli, Lionel Pazart, Pascal Morel and Wilfrid Boireau

Abstract: Before each transfusion of red blood cell concentrate, a final ABO compatibility test is carried out at the patient's bedside on a piece of card and interpreted visually. Despite this ultimate test, transfusion accidents still occur due to group incompatibility, which can be lethal. In order to improve this test, we have developed a specific device based on microarrays for the validation of a smart and safe transfuser in the context of critical transfusional situations. This miniaturized device incorporates a biochip to analyze ABO compatibility in order that the hemagglutination reaction of red blood cells with IgMs in solution be replaced by specific capture and concentration of IgMs on microarrays. Results indicate that a specific immunocapture is obtained with globular concentrates and with different total blood. Smarttransfuser is a smart device developed in collaboration with the French Blood Transfusion Center for the optimization at the patient’s bedside of an ultimate test prior to transfusion.

Paper Nr: 101
Title:

POLYSSACHARIDE-BASED MAGNETIC HYDROGELS AS POTENTICAL VECTORS FOR EXTERNAL-CONTROLLED SOLUTE RELEASE

Authors:

Alexandre T. Paulino, Laurence A. Belfiore, Matt J. Kipper and Elias B. Tambourgi

Abstract: This work describes the synthesis of polysaccharide-based magnetic hydrogels with the introduction of magnetite nanoparticles in the polymer network. The magnetic hydrogels were characterized by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and magnetization curves. FTIR analysis confirmed the efficiency of the polysaccharide-modifying process. The amounts of diffused water into or out-of a hydrogel network were measured. The degree of swelling of the polysaccharide-based magnetic hydrogels was less than that found for the regular polysaccharide-based hydrogels and there was no variation in the water diffusion mechanism. The absence of hysteresis loops and coercivity observed through magnetization curves indicated that magnetic hydrogels can be applied in external-controlled solute release.

Paper Nr: 103
Title:

BEHAVIOURAL ANALYSIS OF AN IMPLANTABLE FLOW AND PRESSURE SENSING DEVICE

Authors:

J. A. Miguel, R. Mozuelos and M. Martinez

Abstract: This paper presents a simplified MatLab model of an implantable device for pulmonary artery blood flow velocity measurement. A comparative review of the most popular blood flow measurement techniques has been carried out, showing the better suitability of pressure-sensing approaches to provide useful information to cardiovascular diseases monitorization. Different possible grades of stenosis in the pulmonary artery have been simulated in order to obtain an early estimation of the device behavior under real conditions.

Paper Nr: 108
Title:

DEVELOPMENT OF AN EX VIVO QUANTITATIVE SPECTROSCOPIC SCANNER

Authors:

D. S. Ferreira, N. Lue, G. Minas, M. S. Feld, K. Badizadegan and C. Yu

Abstract: We describe an ex vivo quantitative spectroscopy (QS) scanning platform which enables integration of different optical modalities for the assessment of ex vivo tissue properties. As a first implementation, the QS scanner combines diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) and intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy (IFS) to provide a multidimensional image of tissue structural and biochemical properties. The wide area coverage is achieved by mechanically scanning of the optical probe. The spectroscopic data is taken one grid at a time with variable grid-to-grid (GTG) distance and field of view (FOV). The ex vivo tissue surface under examination can have a variable size since both GTG distance and FOV can be controlled. We demonstrate the clinical utility of this system using an ex vivo tissue model with ultimate goal of imaging excised tissue margins.

Paper Nr: 109
Title:

A BIOMIMETIC AND BIOMECHANICAL APPROACH FOR TISSUE ENGINEERING - Hybrid Nanomaterials and a Piezoelectric Tunable Bending Apparatus for Mechanically Stimulated Osteoblast Cells Growth

Authors:

Antonio Apicella and Raffella Aversa

Abstract: The research develops and tests new hybrid biomimetic materials that work as mechanically stimulating “scaffolds” to promote early regeneration in implanted bone healing phases. A biomometic nanostructured osteoconductive material coated apparatus is presented. Bioinspired approaches to materials and templated growth of hybrid networks using self-assembled hybrid organic-inorganic interfaces is finalized to extend the use of hybrids in the medical field. Combined in vivo, in vitro and computer-aided simulations have been carried out. Such multidisciplinary approach allowed us to explore many novel ideas in modelling, design and fabrication of new nanostructured biomaterials and scaffolds with enhanced functionality and improved interaction with OB cells. In vivo tests of Titanium screw implanted in rabbit tibiae have shown that mechanical stimulation was induced by the presence of bioactive hybrid perimplantar scaffold resulting in a differentiation and development of mesenchymal tissues. In order to investigate the relationship between bone growth and applied mechanical loading (strain), a piezoelectically driven cantilever and a computer-controlled apparatus for "in vitro" tests has been developed and presented.

Paper Nr: 110
Title:

BIOMIMETIC COMPUTER-AIDED DESIGN AND MANUFACTURE OF COMPLEX BIOLOGICAL SURFACES

Authors:

Andrés Díaz Lantada, Pilar Lafont Morgado, Javier Echávarri Otero, Enrique Chacón Tanarro, Eduardo de la Guerra Ochoa, Juan Manuel Munoz-Guijosa and José Luis Muñoz Sanz

Abstract: Conventional computer-aided design software does not yet provide special tools oriented to modeling the complexity of biological systems, as such programs are mainly developed for promoting information exchange in tasks related to industrial design and to parts with regular smooth surfaces. The process explained in this study allows defining and precisely controlling the topography of surfaces from the design stage, with help of computer-aided design tools. Its application to obtaining a biomimetic surface based on the leaves of the Lotus flower (Nelumbo nucifera), renowned for its outstanding self-healing and tribological properties, is shown as example. Some reflections on potential remarkable applications, linked to the development of implants and prototypes with applications in several industries, have also been included.

Paper Nr: 111
Title:

THE INFLUENCE OF TEXTURED SURFACES ON THE LUBRICATION OF ARTIFICIAL JOINT PROSTHESES

Authors:

Eduardo de la Guerra Ochoa, David Del Sordo Carrancio, Javier Echávarri Otero, Enrique Chacón Tanarro, Andrés Díaz Lantada and Pilar Lafont Morgado

Abstract: The development of artificial joint prostheses is an especially relevant advance linked to the combined use of medical and engineering sciences. In ideal conditions a joint prosthesis should last the whole patient’s life. For a younger patient, that is normally linked to using enhanced designs capable of reducing friction and wear rate, thus increasing patient’s comfort and prosthesis service life. Present study concentrates on validating the use of micro-textured surfaces for improving friction and minimizing wear rate by means of increasing the (elasto) hydrodynamic lubrication range. Micro-textured surfaces have been obtained by UV-photolithography upon photosensible films and subsequent chemical etching of the uncoated surface zones. A ball-plane contact tribometer has been used to assess the friction coefficient of the different micro-textured surfaces in order to validate our approach. Significant reductions of friction coefficient have been obtained thanks to the micro-textures, what provides useful information for computer-aided design & manufacturing processes linked to the development of innovative and efficient biomimetic prostheses.

Posters
Paper Nr: 6
Title:

FEASIBILITY OF A MICRO-FLUIDIC HEALTH CARE DEVICE MEASURING CONTENT OF SODIUM CHLORIDE

Authors:

Toshiyuki Horiuchi and Daichi Shinoda

Abstract: Feasibility of developing a new-type micro-fluidic health care device was investigated. Blood test and urinalysis are generally used for the health check. However, to check more simply and easily diseases, utilization of small quantity but easily collected other body fluids such as sputum, sweat, and tears were taken up. These body fluids contain sodium chloride, and it is considered that the content relates to the health conditions. Therefore, the method to easily detect the sodium chloride content was investigated, and it was found that the measurement of spectral transmittance in deep ultra violet light region was effective. It was clarified that the transmittance at wavelengths of 190-200 nm noticeably decreased relating to sodium chloride content and the absorption coefficient well corresponded to the content. Although the relationship between the sodium chloride content and the health condition have to be investigated in detail hereafter, the new device will be feasible for easily monitoring health conditions.

Paper Nr: 16
Title:

SINX/SIO2 STACKED SENSITIVE THIN FILM FOR ISFET-BASED CHEMICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL SENSORS - Preparation and Characterization of the Stacked Thin Films and Sensors

Authors:

J. F. Souza, M. B. Lima, I. Doi, P. J. Tatsch, J. A. Diniz and J. L. Gonçalves

Abstract: In this work, nitrogen rich SiNx thin film was deposited on SiO2/p-Si (100) substrate by low pressure chemical vapour deposition (LPCVD). The film was physically characterized using techniques such as Fourier infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and ellipsometry. The biocompatibility of such film was investigated by FTIR. Using a set of metal insulator semiconductor field effect transistors (MISFETs) and ion sensitive field effect transistors (ISFETs) fabricated, electrical characteristics and sensing properties were investigated. The biocompatibility of the SiNx film and the electrical quality of the SiNx/SiO2/p-Si interface obtained suggests that SiNx/SiO2 is an adequate insulator on ISFET based chemical and biochemical sensors.

Paper Nr: 28
Title:

DESIGN OF A PROGRAMMABLE BIOELECTRICAL IMPEDANCE SYSTEM FOR BIOMEDICAL APPLICATIONS

Authors:

Daniela Loi, Gianfranco Marongiu, Claudia Palla, Gianmarco Angius and Michele Gallamini

Abstract: The design of a portable, versatile and programmable bioelectrical impedance system is presented. The device uses inexpensive off-the-shelf components to perform multi-frequency current injection and voltage measurements through skin electrodes. The impedance measurement system can be configured as multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance analyzer as well as acupuncture point detector, for localizing pathologically changed acupuncture points on the body. In order to improve the accuracy and the flexibility of the measurements, a programmable wide frequency bandwidth current source has been designed. It allows to generate sinusoidal and square waveforms with a frequency up to 1MHz and amplitude values in the range of [12μApp−1.2mApp]. The measured signals can be amplified with a programmable gain and converted with 16 bits of resolution before being transmitted to a PC through USB transmission for further processing.

Paper Nr: 29
Title:

STUDY OF LIGHT TRANSMISSION THROUGH THE UNDERWEAR FOR DEVELOPMENT OF A URINARY INCONTINENCE SENSOR

Authors:

Kai Ishida, Toshiya Habata, Akihiro Takeuchi, Harukazu Tsuruta, Minoru Hirose and Noriaki Ikeda

Abstract: Urinary incontinence is a troubling disease that makes it difficult for patients to live a normal life. Rapid detection of urinary incontinence could allow many patients with this condition to feel more confident about going out. Therefore, our goal is to develop a urinary incontinence detector based on a light-emitting diode and a photodiode. Here, we describe the development and testing of a prototype model. The photosensor is driven by a 9 V battery and consists of an ordinary electrical circuit, a light-emitting diode (lambda max = 950 nm), a photodiode (spectrum 750-1200 nm), a comparator and, a compact motor. Light transmission through the underwear was changed by soaking with liquids. This phenomenon was measured using a digital voltmeter. The urinary incontinence sensor was placed on a dummy. Liquids were drained into the shorts. These increased in voltage from 3.73 V to 8.78 V, which caused the motor to vibrate. These results show that the prototype sensor can be used to detect urinary incontinence.

Paper Nr: 34
Title:

APPLICATION OF A GTEM CELL TO DETERMINE RF INDUCED CURRENTS IN ELECTRODES OF MEDICAL IMPLANTS - An Alternative to Measurements in MRI Birdcages

Authors:

Karin Mörtlbauer, Daniel Zemann and Erwin Hochmair

Abstract: RF induced currents in elongated electrodes of medical implants can cause hazardous tissue heating during MRI scans. In this paper we introduce an experimental setup to investigate the influence of the geometrical electrode design on the magnitude of the RF induced current. A Vector Network Analyser (VNA) was connected to a Gigahertz Transverse Electromagnetic (GTEM) cell containing the electrode under test. The forward power gain (S21 scattering parameter) was measured by the VNA, whereof the magnitude of the current at the electrode tip could be derived. Furthermore, calculations via transmission line theory were done to describe the present mechanism of current induction. These calculations show good agreement with the results of the performed measurements.

Paper Nr: 36
Title:

SURGICAL TOOL ALIGNMENT BY LASER GUIDANCE USING FLUOROSCOPIC-BASED NAVIGATION TECHNIQUE - A System Implementation and Validation Study

Authors:

Jack T. Liang, Shinya Onogi and Yoshikazu Nakajima

Abstract: This paper provides a novel method for intuitive and CT-less surgical navigation based on fluoroscopic-based navigation and laser guidance technology for minimal invasive orthopaedic surgery. This method does not require intra-operative registration of three-dimensional surface model derived from pre-operative CT/MRI volumes and is able to project surgical path planed intra-operatively onto the patient's skin directly. In this paper, implementation of this method and basic in vitro guidance accuracy validation were performed. Tool insertion path planning was performed on three 2D images from a pinhole imaging source taken at different incident angles. A 3D insertion pathway was generated and projected using two laser beams. Our Fluorolaser system has a planning accuracy of 1.07±0.60 mm, 0.73±0.38 degrees and an overall guidance accuracy of 1.11±0.62 mm, 0.80±0.68 degrees. These results demonstrate that the proposed method has great potentials to ensure accurate and intuitive surgical procedures.

Paper Nr: 37
Title:

A 0.45NW, 0.5V, 59-DB DR, GM-C LOW-PASS FILTER FOR PORTABLE ECG RECORDING

Authors:

Chutham Sawigun, Senad Hiseni and Wouter A. Serdijn

Abstract: This paper presents the design of a sub-threshold CMOS Gm-C low-pass filter in a portable ECG detection system. The proposed filter is formed by cascading 6 stages of identical 1st-order low-pass sections. With a minimum number of active components in the 1st-order section, the noise contribution of the circuit can be kept low while minimizing the size of transistors and capacitors. The filter cut-off frequency is designed to be adjustable over the range from 100Hz to 250Hz by changing the bias current. Circuit simulations, using AMS’ 0.18µm CMOS technology and operating from a 0.5V supply voltage, show that, for a cut-off frequency of 150Hz, the filter draws 0.9nA of current. An input referred noise of 88µVrms is obtained while for 1% total harmonic distortion, the voltage swing can be as high as 0.23Vpp.

Paper Nr: 44
Title:

TOWARDS WEARABLE AND CONTINUOUS 12-LEAD ELECTROCARDIOGRAM MONITORING - Synthesis of the 12-lead Electrocardiogram using 3 Wireless Single-lead Sensors

Authors:

C. P. Figueiredo and P. M. Mendes

Abstract: Wearable health monitoring systems have emerged in the last decade as innovative means for patient observation and healthcare delivery. Among the physiological signals which can be measured using such systems, the 12-lead electrocardiogram is arguably the most important. However, continuous monitoring of the standard 12 lead electrocardiogram is impractical and unattractive for a wearable system, due to the obtrusiveness and discomfort that the placement and connection of 10 electrodes would cause. In this regard, the use of reduced lead sets for the synthesis of the 12-lead electrocardiogram is a preferable solution. This work analyses the suitability of a wireless sensor network prototype for continuous and simultaneous monitoring of a set of 3 modified electrocardiogram leads, which can be used for synthesis of the 12-lead electrocardiogram by application of a patient-specific transformation matrix, estimated by multiple linear regression.

Paper Nr: 46
Title:

INTELLIGENT CHAIR SENSOR-ACTUATOR - A Novel Sensor Type for Seated Posture Detection and Correction

Authors:

Rui Lucena, Cláudia Quaresma, Adelaide Jesus and Pedro Vieira

Abstract: In order to build an intelligent chair capable of posture guidance and correction we propose a new sensor/actuator pressure cell capable of measuring applied pressure and conformation change, which will allow posture evaluation, guidance and correction. We developed and applied the pressure cells to the seat pad of an office chair to test if both the cells and their placement were suitable for pressure map reconstruction. When tested for 10 different postures, the results showed distinguishable pressure maps for each posture, making the pressure cells suitable for pressure map reconstruction and posture evaluation. This paper also presents a briefly description of our vision and goals for the intelligent chair project.

Paper Nr: 47
Title:

MINIATURIZED WIRELESS CONTROLLED ELECTROSTIMULATOR

Authors:

Tiago Araújo, Neuza Nunes and Hugo Gamboa

Abstract: This project introduces a new approach to hardware and software controlled solutions in the electrical stimulation field. A miniaturized, portable and wireless electrostimulator was designed and its development steps and also a new perspective to control the stimulation parameters in real time are exposed in this paper. Our system allows the control and automation of the stimulation session with high flexibility and easiness, using a userfriendly interface for a computer or an Android platform, which communicates with the portable and wireless device. The hardware performance was tested with a skin electric model, achieving the expected results. The presented solutions have high applicability in the scientific and ambulatory electrostimulation context.

Paper Nr: 66
Title:

MOBILE HEALTH MONITORING PLATFORM FOR AAL APPLICATIONS

Authors:

J. Festa, C. Silva and P. M. Mendes

Abstract: Mobile devices able to monitor diverse health condition parameters are becoming widely available. Also, mobile devices with wireless communications with significant computing capability (e.g., tablets, smartphones) are becoming available every time everywhere. Placing such devices to operate together will allow to deploy the so called ambient assisted living technologies, which allows for individual health condition monitoring almost everywhere and any time required. This paper presents a solution able to monitor several physiological parameters using the mobile platforms running android. The implemented solution permits to integrate transparently services from remotely distributed devices.

Paper Nr: 68
Title:

COMBINED STIMULATION AND MEASUREMENT SYSTEM FOR ARRAY ELECTRODES

Authors:

Markus Valtin, Thomas Schauer, Carsten Behling, Michael Daniel and Matthias Weber

Abstract: Array electrodes have the potential to significantly advance Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES) performance and patient compliance by optimizing the electrode position. To evaluate the potentials and for research purposes, an universal stimulation system for array electrodes has been developed. The system additionally features volitional EMG recording from the array electrodes during active stimulation. Multiple devices, one stimulator and at least one demultiplexer, are synchronized to deliver up to 10 stimulation pulses per stimulation cycle at a frequency of  420Hz. A typical stimulation cycle period is 50ms. The real-time controllable array electrode can include up to 60 elements for the active electrode and up to 4 elements for the indifferent electrode. A small switch module permits placement near the array electrode, eliminating extensive wiring. The stimulation system is fully controllable from a PC via USB interfaces.

Paper Nr: 74
Title:

MOBILE SPEED AND POSITION SENSOR FOR HOME HEALTH MONITORING BASED ON ACCELEROMETER SIGNALS

Authors:

Tamás Dabóczi and Arnold Kalvach

Abstract: This paper presents a study how accelerometer sensors can be used to estimate speed and position by integrating the sensor signals once and twice, respectively. Unfortunately, integration emphasises bias and noise of the sensor. We developed a heuristic nonlinear filter which efficiently suppresses unwanted effects, assuming human movement. Our aim is to provide a mobile sensor to detect the movement of elderly people suffering from dementia, for home health monitoring purposes. Utilising this sensor together with others allows us to detect unusual behaviour of the patient. The two accelerometer signals together with the suggested heuristic nonlinear filtering allows us to reliable measure the speed, and reconstruct the shape of the movement trajectory of the patient.

Paper Nr: 75
Title:

FALL DETECTION SYSTEM FOR ELDERLY PEOPLE - A Neural Network Approach

Authors:

Getúlio Igrejas, Joana S. Amaral and Pedro J. Rodrigues

Abstract: In this work a new approach for a fall detection system is proposed. The device integrates a 3-axis accelerometer and a 3-axis gyroscope to measure linear acceleration and angular velocities, respectively. Information from both sensors is used to characterize movements through selected features extracted from raw data. A classification system based on a Feedforward Backpropagation Neural Network is then trained, based on the extracted features. The performed tests present low false positives and low false negatives rates with good specificity and sensitivity values.

Paper Nr: 77
Title:

ENERGY EFFICIENCY EVALUATION OF VOLTAGE CONTROL AND FREQUENCY CONTROL OVER AN INDUCTIVE POWER LINK FOR BIOMEDICAL IMPLANTS

Authors:

Pablo Aqueveque, Marcial Saez and Rodrigo Rosales

Abstract: This article presents the analysis of the efficiency of two control systems used to regulate the DC voltage in an implanted device fed by an inductive power link. Both control systems work outside the body, eliminating the voltage regulator in the implanted circuit (inside the body). These ways of voltage control reduce the power and heat dissipated inside the body. The first control system involves regulation of power supply voltage to the high frequency amplifier. The second control system adjusts the frequency of the inductive link. A laboratory prototype was built and experimental results were obtained. It is shown that for a range of distance between 0 mm and 11.8 mm the efficiency of the system is greater when using amplitude voltage control. Above that distance, the efficiency of frequency control is better. A difference of 20% was obtained in the optimal points.

Paper Nr: 82
Title:

ENERGY HARVESTING FOR SELF-FOLDING MICRO DEVICES

Authors:

Pedro Anacleto, Evin Gultepe, David H. Gracias and Paulo M. Mendes

Abstract: The miniaturization of medical devices allows numerous new solutions in medicine including implantable devices that can diagnose, treat and monitor patients. Drug delivery systems have the potential to drastically change the drug administration and hence to improve their therapeutic efficiency. These devices can be fabricated by combining self-folding methods with the conventional multi-layer lithography. This combined lithography technique allows precise patterning of two dimensional (2D) templates that can transform into three dimensional (3D) structures with higher surface area to volume ratios. The same technique allows the incorporation of small antennas with devices and enabling wireless capabilities. An efficient wireless link between an external reader and the implanted device provides a remarkable advantage to both patients and caregivers including greater patient ease of movement, continuous data feeds, higher quality and reliability of data reporting. This paper proposes a system which is composed of a 500x500μm2 square loop antenna with 5GHz operating frequency, embedded on a SU-8 cubic container suitable for small implantable medical devices.

Paper Nr: 88
Title:

DIGITAL LARYNGOSCOPE - A New Force Measuring Laryngoscope

Authors:

António Silva, Pedro Amorim, Manuel Quintas, Luis Mourão and Joaquim Gabriel

Abstract: A laryngoscope is a medical device commonly used in most hospitals worldwide and used to conduct an oral or endotracheal intubation which leads to changes in the patient parameters (heart rate, blood pressure, etc.) due to the force applied on the tongue and other soft-tissues. However, these parameters are being monitored continuously, and provide guidance for anaesthetists to control the drugs which may lead to an inadequate dosage. This work aims to develop a laryngoscope capable of measuring the force applied during a laryngoscopy. To measure the applied force, several solutions, based on different sensors, were analysed and tested. The traditional laryngoscope xenon lighting lamp was replaced by a high bright LED which result in a clear illumination and lower batteries consumption. A Bluetooth® communication module was also include to allow a real-time force acquisition and display.

Paper Nr: 92
Title:

IN-SITU SPECTROSCOPIC INVESTIGATION OF UNFOLDING AND AGGREGATION OF INSULIN UNDER ULTRASONIC EXCITATION - An Ultrasonic Actuator for FTIR-spectrometry on Biomatter

Authors:

Helge Pfeiffer, Nikos Chatziathanasiou, Filip Meersman, Christ Glorieux, Karel Heremans and Martine Wevers

Abstract: It is well-known that fibrillogenesis of proteins can be influenced by diverse external parameters, such as temperature, pressure, agitation or chemical agents. This paper presents a newly developed ultrasonic actuator cell and a corresponding first feasibility study shows that also ultrasonic excitation at moderate intensities has a clear influence on the unfolding and aggregation behaviour of insulin. Irradiation with an average sound intensity of about 180 mW/cm2 leads to a decrease of the unfolding and aggregation temperature up to 7 K.

Paper Nr: 94
Title:

VERTEBRAL METRICS: APPLICATION OF A INSTRUMENT TO EVALUATE THE SPINAL COLUMN IN PREGNANT WOMEN

Authors:

Cláudia Quaresma, Miguel Fonseca, Mário Forjaz Secca, J. Goyri O’Neill and J. Branco

Abstract: The published literature about the biomechanical alterations of the spinal column during pregnancy is scarce and disperses, being more qualitative and limited to partial analysis of the spinal column. The main justification for a global approach to be neglected could be related to the inexistence of a non-invasive instrument that evaluates the spinal column in an objective and complete way. Thus, in order to fill this gap, we built Vertebral Metrics – a device that allows the identification of the 3D position of the vertex of each of the spinal processes, from the first cervical vertebra to the first sacral vertebra and calculate the amplitude of the angles of curvature of the spinal column in the standing position. The present work has the objective of presenting the first application of this equipment to 49 pregnant women at four different moments of pregnancy (12, 20, 32 e 37 weeks of gestation). Analysing the results we can conclude that Vertebral Metrics – is an innovative instrument in the global evaluation of the spinal column in a standing position, allowing a quantitative analysis of its shape and temporal variations.

Paper Nr: 100
Title:

LOW-COST ENZYME-BASED BIOSENSOR FOR LACTIC ACID AMPEROMETRIC DETECTION - Electrical Modeling and Validation for Clinical and Food Processing Applications

Authors:

M. Scaramuzza, A. Ferrario, E. Pasqualotto, G. Rosati, A. De Toni, M. Quarta, A. Paccagnella and C. Reggiani

Abstract: In this work we present the preliminary resulting measurements of an enzyme-based biosensor for the amperometric detection of lactic acid (LA). The sensor is based on low-cost gold electrodes on polymeric substrate. The redox catalytic enzyme used for analyte amperometric detection is lactate oxidase (LOx) from Pediococcus sp. This enzyme has been immobilized over electrodes surfaces by direct adsorption methodologies. Analysis of the enzyme-modified electrodes have been carried out by means of Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) and with the development of an equivalent electrical model, in order to improve the adsorption process. Biosensors performance have been evaluated with Cyclic Voltammetry (CVM) measurements in different lactic acid solutions with concentrations from 1 M up to 300 mM. The lactate sensitivity of this disposable biosensor results in about 6.24 µA mM-1 cm-2.

Paper Nr: 105
Title:

SURFACE PASSIVATION EFFECT IN SGOI NANOWIRE BIOSENSOR WITH HIGH GE FRACTION

Authors:

Kow-Ming Chang, Chu-Feng Chen, Chiung-Hui Lai, Cheng-Ting Hsieh, Chin-Ning Wu, Yu-Bin Wang, Chung-Hsien Liu and Kuo Chin Chang

Abstract: The increase of surface to volume ratio results in the enhancement of the sensitivity of the nanowires. Our previous studies have shown that the higher Ge fraction of Si1-xGex nano-wire improves the sensitivity of the nanowire biosensor as a result of carrier mobility enhancement in strain-Si. Increasing the fraction of Ge in SiGe-on-Insulator (SGOI) using Ge condensation by oxidation has obtained a significant enhancement in hole mobility, further improving the sensitivity of SGOI nanowire. However, the sensitivity of SGOI nanowire was degraded for exceeding a Ge fraction of 20% (i.e., high Ge fraction), resulting from the unstable surface state. In this work, a top surface passivation SiO2 layer was deposited on Si0.8Ge0.2 nanowire and the sensitivity was about 1.3 times greater than nanowire sample without the top passivation layer.

Paper Nr: 107
Title:

ENERGY HARVESTED FROM RESPIRATORY EFFORT

Authors:

David Cavalheiro, Ana Catarina Silva, Stanimir Valtchev, J. Pamies Teixeira and Valentina Vassilenko

Abstract: Presently, a high cost of some medical equipment is due not only the sophisticated technology, but also because the cost of his maintenance. The electronic devices implanted in the human body are examples for this constant maintenance, requiring sophisticated medical operations. Extra weight and volume addition to the electronic devices are also a disadvantage, limiting the autonomy of such devices. An alternative to replace the batteries as power sources is to obtain the energy from the human body. In this work we present our prototype of Breathing Energy Transducer (BET) for an efficient energy conversion at fixed 2.6V from chest movements during breathing. A series of experiments were performed in order to calculate the power that could be generated from the respiratory effort during normal and deep breathings.