BIODEVICES 2014 Abstracts


Full Papers
Paper Nr: 8
Title:

Fabrication of Precise Micro-fluidic Devices using a Low-cost and Simple Contact-exposure Tool for Lithography

Authors:

Toshiyuki Horiuchi and Shinpei Yoshino

Abstract: Various methods have been proposed for fabricating biochemical, pharmaceutical, and medical micro-fluidic devices. Among them, the new method using groove patterns formed in a thick resist film as the flow paths is promising. Because the flow paths are directly fabricated only using one lithography process, complicated flow paths can be obtained easily and precisely. However, it is often required to prepare an expensive exposure system newly for applying the method to practical fabrications of the devices. For this reason, the effective method has not been sufficiently utilized practically. Here, a very low-cost exposure tool was developed to make a breakthrough. In the new tool, functions were minimized, and limited to indispensable ones. However, because the required pattern widths were in the range of 50-200 μm, flow-path patterns were nicely fabricated. Assembling the fabricated micro-mixer chips with the vessels and lids, it was verified that two liquids were simultaneously injected into the mixer paths without leaks. Thus, it was clarified that the new exposure tool was useful. Micro-patterns fabricated using the new simple exposure tool will be useful for developing various micro-fluidic devices.

Paper Nr: 10
Title:

Signal Quality in Dry Electrode EEG and the Relation to Skin-electrode Contact Impedance Magnitude

Authors:

Alexandra-Maria Tautan, Vojkan Mihajlovic, Yun-Hsuan Chen, Bernard Grundlehner, Julien Penders and Wouter Serdijn

Abstract: Current EEG research approaches are focusing on developing new dry electrode EEG (electroencephalogram) systems providing a high enough signal quality for a wide range of applications. This study proposes several parameters for evaluating signal quality of dry electrodes and relates the results to skin-electrode contact impedance magnitude values. The EEG recordings of a Ag/AgCl pinned electrode and a flexible polymer pinned electrode are evaluated through a comparison to conductive gel electrode recordings. The experimental setup was made up of two EEG acquisition systems connected in parallel. The protocol included open eyes, closed eyes and steady-state visually evoked potentials (SSVEP) sessions in both seated and walking in place conditions. The parameters used for evaluation were signal correlations, signal coherence and signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs). Results showed that the three proposed parameters provided equivalent outcome for signal quality estimation for the same recordings. There was no relation reported between the defined signal quality and the skin-electrode contact impedance in either dry or gel electrodes, although high impedance variations were present among subjects. However, larger impedance magnitude and impedance magnitude variations, and lower signal quality is observed for dry electrodes compared to gel ones.

Paper Nr: 20
Title:

Geometrical Improvement of a Noninvasive Core Temperature Thermometer based on Numeric Modeling and Experiment Validation

Authors:

Ming Huang, Toshiyo Tamura, Wenxi Chen, Kei-ichiro Kitamura, Tetsu Nemoto and Shigehiko Kanaya

Abstract: This paper describes the improvement of a transcutaneous core temperature thermometer by modifying the configuration, in terms of height and radius, of the thermometer using the so-called dual-heat-flux (DHF) method. The motivation of these modifications is to decrease the volume of the thermometer so as to reduce the transverse heat flow inside, in other words, to preserve the underlying assumption of the DHF method that heat flows from the inner part of human body through skin onto the thermometer longitudinally. The modification’s effect is evaluated by both numeric modeling based on finite element method and experiment. The results of simulations and experiments show that a lower-in-height and larger-in-radius configuration will improve the accuracy of the thermometer. Prototypes of 22.0 mm radius can attain satisfactory accuracy with error less than 0.5 C when heights are 8.0 mm or less.

Paper Nr: 24
Title:

Low Power Remote Neonatal Temperature Monitoring Device

Authors:

Hiteshwar Rao, Dhruv Saxena, Saurabh Kumar, Sagar G. V., Bharadwaj Amrutur, Prem Mony, Prashanth Thankachan, Kiruba Shankar, Suman Rao and Swarnarekha Bhat

Abstract: In er we present the desigthis papn of a wearable temperature sensing device for remote neonatal monitoring. It is designed for continuous and real-time monitoring of the infants in remote rural areas, for the first few weeks after their birth. It is capable of sensing the neonate’s skin temperature with 0.1◦ C accuracy to detect the early onset of hypothermia. The sensed data is transferred securely over bluetooth low energy radio to a nearby gateway, which then relays the information to a central database for real time monitoring. The device incorporates a medical grade thermistor which is directly interfaced to a microcontroller with an integrated bluetooth low energy radio. Low power optimizations at both the circuit and software levels ensure sleep currents of only 1uA, ensuring very long battery life. The device is packaged in a baby friendly, water proof housing and is easily sterilizable and reusable.

Paper Nr: 25
Title:

Miniaturized Antenna Array with Low Correlation for Telemedicine and Body Area Networks Applications

Authors:

Haider Khaleel, Chitranjan Singh, Hussain Al-Rizzo and Seshadri Mohan

Abstract: The gain from Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) techniques in wireless sensor networks equipped with miniaturized sensor nodes cannot be fully exploited due to the difficulty encountered when placing traditional multiple antennas with sub-wavelength physical separation. This paper presents a novel antenna array design using µ-negative metamaterial (MNG) structures that lead to low correlation between antennas when placed closely on a user’s body utilizing a telemedicine or a Body Area Network based system. The obtained correlation coefficient of 0.04 is low enough for realizing full diversity gain from using such antenna array on sensor nodes in a telemedicine WLAN environment. Furthermore, Bit Error Rate (BER) simulation result for a 2×2 Alamouti diversity scheme in an IEEE 802.11a system is also presented. Design and simulations are conducted using CST Microwave Studio which is based on the Finite Integration Technique. Results suggest that the proposed design would be a suitable candidate for telemedicine and BAN applications that are constrained by limited space.

Paper Nr: 37
Title:

VLSI Wavelet Denoising of Neural Signals - Critical Appraisal of Different Algorithmic Solutions for Threshold Estimation

Authors:

Nicola Carta, Danilo Pani and Luigi Raffo

Abstract: Wavelet denoising represents a common preprocessing step for several biomedical applications exposing low SNR. When the real-time requirements are joined to the fulfilment of area and power minimization for wearable/ implantable applications, such as for neuroprosthetic devices, only custom VLSI implementations can be adopted. In this case, every part of the algorithm should be carefully tuned. The usually overlooked part related to threshold estimation is deeply analysed in this paper, in terms of required hardware resources and functionality, exploiting Xilinx System Generator for the design of the architecture and the co-simulation. The analysis reveals how the widely used Median Absolute Deviation (MAD) could lead to hardware implementations highly inefficient compared to other dispersion estimators demonstrating better scalability, relatively to the specific application.

Paper Nr: 75
Title:

Development of Concurrent Object-oriented Logic Programming System to Intelligent Monitoring of Anomalous Human Activities

Authors:

Alexei A. Morozov, Abhishek Vaish, Alexander F. Polupanov, Vyacheslav E. Antciperov, Igor I. Lychkov, Aleksandr N. Alfimtsev and Vladimir V. Deviatkov

Abstract: A logic programming approach to the intelligent monitoring of anomalous human activity is considered. The main idea of this approach is in using of a first order logic for describing abstract concepts of anomalous human activity, i.e. brawls, sudden attack, armed attack, leaving object, loitering, pickpocketing, personal theft, immobile person, etc. We use the Actor Prolog concurrent object-oriented logic language and a state-of-the-art Prolog-to-Java translator for efficient implementation of logical inference on video scenes. A logical rules generation methodology is considered in relation to the analysis of anomalous human behaviour. The problem of creation of special built-in classes of Actor Prolog for the low-level video processing is discussed.

Short Papers
Paper Nr: 5
Title:

Versatile Low-cost Modular Microfluidic Arrays for Cancer Diagnostics

Authors:

James F. Rusling, Colleen Krause, Brunah Otieno, Karteek Kadimisetty, Chi Tang, Abhay Vaze and Gregory Bishop

Abstract: Accurate, sensitive, multiplexed detection of biomarker proteins in serum and tissue holds significant promise for personalized cancer diagnostics and therapy monitoring. Here we describe fabrication details of a modular microfluidic system featuring a small chamber for on-line protein capture from serum by magnetic beads, positioned upstream of a nanostructured multi-sensor array chamber to achieve high sensitivity for up to eight proteins, with the ability to expand to many more proteins. Microfluidic chambers are made by templating PDMS channels on machined aluminum molds to avoid lithography, and mounted in hard plastic housings equipped with inlet and outlet lines and interfaced with valves. Gold immunoarrays fabricated by screen or ink-jet printing, or wet chemical etching of gold films utilize amperometry or electrochemiluminescence (ECL) detection. These arrays are interfaced with microfluidics to achieve well-controlled mass transport leading to excellent signal/noise and unprecedented sensitivities. With interest in low cost point of care (POC) systems, we developed a module to also facilitate automated microfluidic reagent and sample delivery utilizing an open source microcontroller and micropumps, with ECL detection by camera.

Paper Nr: 9
Title:

Spasticity Assessment through Pendulum Testing in Individuals with Tetraplegia Undergoing Rehabilitation with Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation

Authors:

Eliza Regina Ferreira Braga Machado de Azevedo, Renata Manzano Maria, Renato Varoto, Karina Cristina Alonso and Alberto Cliquet Junior

Abstract: Objective: To analyze the effects of different neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) protocols on spasticity improvement in subjects with tetraplegia. Methods: 13 patients with tetraplegia went through the pendulum test evaluation before and after NMES treatment. During tests an electrogoniometer was placed on a leg to measure leg oscillations and knee angles. Individuals were divided in two groups according to the treatment: gait group with NMES (n=6) and exercise group with NMES (n=7) Results: Relaxation index, test duration in seconds, angle of the first swing and rest angle of the leg in both legs were assessed before and after the treatment for both groups. Most differences were observed in the gait group. Conclusion: Both treatments with NMES have shown to be effective treatments for spasticity improvement in individuals with tetraplegia.

Paper Nr: 12
Title:

Non-invasive Pain Sensor Development for Advanced Control Strategy of Anesthesia - A Conceptual Study

Authors:

Dana Copot, Amélie Chevalier, Clara M. Ionescu and Robin De Keyser

Abstract: This paper introduces the mechanisms of pain perception in the human body in order to start the challenging task of controlling analgesia as part of general anesthesia. This research proposes a pain sensor, which measures analgesia levels. For control purpose, a prediction model is needed in order to obtain a model-based predictive control (MPC) strategy. This paper proposes to employ a compartmental fractional-order derivative model as a prediction model for the diffusion process that occurs when a drug is taken up by the human body. Simulations are preformed to investigate the effect of the fractional order on the diffusion of Propofol in the human body.

Paper Nr: 19
Title:

Gait Analysis with IMU - Gaining New Orientation Information of the Lower Leg

Authors:

Steffen Hacker, Christoph Kalkbrenner, Maria-Elena Algorri and Ronald Blechschmidt-Trapp

Abstract: In this paper we present an application for the analysis and characterisation of gait motion. Using motion data from Inertial Measurement Units (IMUs), seven relevant parameters are measured that extensively charaterize the gait of individuals. Our application uses raw and processed IMU data, where the processed data is the result of filtering the IMU data with a Magdwick filter. The filtered data offers orientation information and is relatively drift free. The IMU data is used to train a three layer neural network that can then extract individual footsteps from an IMU dataset. Results with different test persons show that our application can successfully characterize gait motion on an individual basis and can serve for the clinical assesment and evaluation of abnormal or pathological gait.

Paper Nr: 26
Title:

A Label-free Detection of Carcinoembryonic Antigen (CEA) using Micromechanical Biosensors

Authors:

Meisam Omidi, Mohammadmehdi Choolaei, F. Haghiralsadat, M. Azhdari, N. Davodi Moghadam and F. Yazdian

Abstract: We have used arrays of micromechanical biosensors to detect carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), a protein biomarker associated with various cancers such as colorectal, lung, breast, pancreatic, and bladder cancer. The sensing principle is based on the surface stress changes induced by antigen–antibody interaction on the micromechanical membrane (MM) surfaces. MM consists of a membrane suspended by four piezoresistive sensing components. The isotropic surface stress on the membrane results in a uniaxial stress in each sensing component, which efficiently improves the sensitivity. According to the experiments, it was revealed that MMs have surface stress sensitivities in the order of 2 (mJ/m). This matter allows them to detect CEA concentrations as low as 500 pg mL-1 or 3 pM. This indicates the fact that the self-sensing MM approach is beneficial for pathological tests.

Paper Nr: 27
Title:

The Application of Mobile Devices for the Recognition of Malignant Melanoma

Authors:

Dmitriy Dubovitskiy, Vladimir Devyatkov and Glenn Richer

Abstract: Robotic systems and autonomous decision making systems are increasingly becoming a significant part of our everyday routines. Object recognition is an area of computer science in which automated algorithms work behind a graphical user interface or similar vehicle for interaction with users or some other feature of the external world. From a user perspective this interaction with the underlying algorithm may not be immediately apparent. This paper presents an outline of a particular form of image interpretation via mobile devices as a method of skin cancer screening. The use of mobile hardware resources is intrinsically interconnected with the decision making engine built into the processing system. The challenging fundamental problem of computational geometry is in offering a software - hardware solution for image recognition in a complex environment where not all aspects of that environment can fully be captured for use within the algorithm. The unique combination of hardware - software interaction described in this paper brings image processing within such an environment to the point where accurate and stable operation is possible, offering a higher level of flexibility and automation. The Fuzzy logic classification method makes use of a set of features which include fractal parameters derived from generally understood Fractal Theory. The automated learning system is helping to develop the system into one capable of near-autonomous operation. The methods discussed potentially have a wide range of applications in ‘machine vision’. However, in this publication, we focus on the development and implementation of a skin cancer screening system that can be used by nonexperts so that in cases where cancer is suspected a patient can immediately be referred to an appropriate specialist.

Paper Nr: 35
Title:

Towards Logic Circuits based on Physarum Polycephalum Machines - The Ladder Diagram Approach

Authors:

Andrew Schumann, Krzysztof Pancerz and Jeff Jones

Abstract: In the paper, we present foundations of logic circuits based on Physarum polycephalum machines. We propose to apply the ladder diagram approach for constructing topological structures of such circuits. Relationships between basic ladder diagram elements and topological constructions present in Physarum polycephalum machines are emphasized. At the beginning, basic logic gates (AND, OR, NOT) are considered. Such a set of gates constitutes a functionally complete system. This fact is important for building computationally universal devices.

Paper Nr: 38
Title:

Tunable Fabry-Pérot Filter for Optical Glucose Monitoring

Authors:

Xin Zhao and Schmidt J. Dominik

Abstract: This paper presents a Tunable MEMS Fabry-Pérot (FP) filter for the application of optical glucose sensor in Long-Wave Infrared (LWIR) range. The structure design, simulation, fabrication process and testing system are reported. The spectral wavelength tuning range from 10.9 μm to 12.19 μm was designed for the transmission peak which is related to the glucose concentration. A tuning distance between top and bottom reflector of 2.25µm has been achieved, while maintaining a relatively low tuning voltage of 20V. The Tunable FP filter is the core part of glucose sensor and has other applications in Bio-sensor, hyperspectral imaging and tunable lasers, etc.

Paper Nr: 41
Title:

Label-free Immobilization of Nano-particles on Silicon based Electrodes for Single-biomolecule Studies

Authors:

Ch. Wenger, X. Knigge, M. Fraschke, D. Wolansky, P. Kulse, U. Kaletta, A. Wolff, W. Mehr, E.-M. Laux, F. F. Bier and R. Hölzel

Abstract: Dielectrophoresis (DEP) is an established method for the spatial manipulation of microscopical particles. We demonstrate the temporal and permanent immobilization of polystyrene nanoparticles and protein molecules with sizes ranging from 4 nm to 500 nm. For this, regular arrays of silicon based nanoelectrodes were developed with tip diameters of 10 nm and 50 nm. No chemical modifications of molecules, particles or surfaces were needed. This opens up potentially important applications of DEP in biosensing and cell research.

Paper Nr: 51
Title:

ICT-enabled Medical Compression Stocking for Treatment of Leg Venous Insufficiency

Authors:

Troels Fedder Jensen, Finn Overgaard Hansen, José Antonio Esparza Isasa, Peter Høgh Mikkelsen, Tomi Hakala and Timo Vuorela

Abstract: This paper presents a novel approach to the treatment of leg venous insufficiency. This approach consists of an ICT-enabled medical compression stocking that aims at mitigating the requirement for daily assistance and increasing the patient’s self-sufficiency. More specifically, this paper presents the wearable subsystem of this solution. In addition this paper discusses the different prototypes that have been produced to demonstrate that this new approach is technically feasible.

Paper Nr: 65
Title:

A Biofeedback System for Continuous Monitoring of Bone Healing

Authors:

M. Windolf, M. Ernst, R. Schwyn, S. M. Perren, H. Mathis, M. Wilke and R. G. Richards

Abstract: A telemetric biofeedback concept for continuous monitoring of bone healing is introduced. The system is based on an implantable electronic unit with on-board data processing of deformations or displacements of fracture fixation devices. In contrast to existing solutions, it allows for autonomous long-term data collection over several months. The system enables observing fracture motion and patient activity under daily routine conditions. Feasibility of the approach was proven in an animal experiment with an instrumented plate monitoring axial motion in a transverse osteotomy gap at the sheep tibia. Callus formation and maturation of the repair tissue was indicated by a decline of the interfragmentary motion signal over time and by changes in the animal's activity pattern. For improved understanding and interpretation of such information, extended collection of in-vivo data is the consequent next step.

Paper Nr: 71
Title:

Designing Next-generation Implantable Wireless Telemetry

Authors:

Deyasini Majumdar, Christian Schlegel, Navid Rezaei and Bruce Cockburn

Abstract: Biomedical applications in general, and health monitoring in particular, extensively involve on-body as well as implantable wireless communications devices to enable viable end-user solutions. While technologies to wirelessly transmit data from implanted devices have already been reported, they fall short of being able to support the needs of emerging next-generation biomedical applications. In order to translate state-of-the-art wireless technologies into solutions fitting body area network applications (BANs), a key challenge to overcome is the strictly limited power budget. This paper attempts to review design challenges and proposes a viable solution for wireless telemetry to meet the targets for next-generation BANs.

Paper Nr: 74
Title:

Development of an Automatic System for Persistent Collection of Physiological Information - Toward Long-Term Application in Biorhythm Monitoring and Healthcare

Authors:

Wenxi Chen and Xun Gong

Abstract: This study aims to develop an automatic system for persistent collection of physiological information such as pulse rate and SpO2 in daily environment. The system includes a home-based user terminal and an Internet database server. The user terminal consists of a SpO2 sensor and a bedside box. The bedside box receives the physiological data from the sensor by Bluetooth connection and relays the data to an Internet-based database server. This system was used to collect the data during daily sleep from a female volunteer at her thirties for a period of more than 15 months. Superior persistence characteristic in daily data collection was confirmed and achieved up to 93.1% of data collection rate comparing with many allied devices or systems that usually ranged about 25% or even less. Average length of menstrual cycles in the female subject was estimated 24.9 days by the cosinor analysis method using the collected data. The result showed satisfactorily accurate with comparing self-recorded length of 27.5±1.3 days. This system is expected to serve as a significant approach for long-term data collection and to obtain more reliable results for the purpose of tracking biorhythm and health condition change.

Posters
Paper Nr: 1
Title:

Neural Networks Controler of a Lower Limbs Robotic Rehabilitation Chair

Authors:

M. A. Mamou and N. Saadia

Abstract: In this paper, we propose a new control law using a kinematic model based on a Feed forward neural network (FFNN). This controller is designed for the control of a robotic rehabilitation chair of the lower limbs designed and created in the LRPE laboratory, with high accuracy. The results of the validation tests, show that the lower limb joints trajectories of the proposed control law are similar to the physiological joints trajectories of a patient. This demonstrates that the proposed control law provides a high performance and a fast convergence with extremely low error.

Paper Nr: 6
Title:

Development of Retention System of the Autonomous Endoscopic Capsule and Its Functionalities

Authors:

Dmitry Mikhaylov, Timur Khabibullin, Igor Zhukov, Andrey Starikovskiy, Landish Gubaydulina, Natalya Romanchuk and Vladimir Konev

Abstract: The aim of the research is to propose the retention system of the wireless endoscopic capsule allowing more detailed observation of stomach, small intestine as well as other parts of the digestive tract. The capsule has an outer layer or whiskers made of an electroactive polymer material that expands under influence of an applied voltage. An electroactive polymer expands up to 50% of its original size and creates a roughly ball-shaped object approximately 3 cm in diameter (in case of whiskers – they change their angular orientation). The performance (changing the size) of the mock-up of the capsule with eight whiskers made of electroactive polymer was tested using a silicone model with sensitive sensors simulating the digestive tract of a person. The probability of failure-free operation and the mean time to failure for capsule and recording device integrated circuits were calculated.

Paper Nr: 7
Title:

Smartphone Applications for Indoor Real-Time Location Systems (RTLSs) with Bluetooth Low Energy

Authors:

Naoya Arisaka, Noritaka Mamorita and Akihiro Takeuchi

Abstract: The benefits of Hospital real-time location systems (RTLSs) have been characterized as increasing efficiency and reducing operational costs. We developed iPhone applications for an indoor RTLS with Bluetooth low energy (BLE) and evaluated the system in our laboratory rooms instead of on actual hospital wards. The applications were installed in peripherals as tags on iPhone5s, centrals as access points (5th-generation iPod touch pads or iPhone5s) placed in rooms in a concrete building, and a monitor as a server on an iPhone5. The centrals and monitor were connected on a wireless LAN. Each peripheral communicates with a central by BLE, and the centrals communicate with the monitor by sockets on TCP/IP. While individuals with iPhone5s moved around in the building, the “access events” were captured in a few ten- second units at about 10 m from a central. The monitor showed the access events with the peripheral identifier and location, and interactively returned messages to the peripheral. A RTLS was simply created with only iPhone applications using Bluetooth low energy without RFID tags. This system may effectively be used as an indoor RTLS, patient tracking, and calling system.

Paper Nr: 14
Title:

Biosensors as Emerging Market: Obstacles to Implement - Russian Case

Authors:

A. A. Balyakin, E. V. Blokhina, G. E. Kunina and S. B. Taranenko

Abstract: We discuss the modern trend in high tech medicine connected with biosensors implementation. Though this technology being mature with a number of interesting technological and/or scientific solutions, the corresponding market has not been formed yet. In our work we try to summarize the obstacles for biosensors implementation using Russian Federation as an example of a country with strong governmental support for health care system. We argue that biosensors implementation should give rise for more proper monitoring and data handling, providing more correct choice of treatment, but should not be regarded as medical solutions.

Paper Nr: 15
Title:

Noninvasive Glucose Monitoring by Mid-infrared Self-emission Method

Authors:

Yen-chun Yeh, Sheng Yang, Fan Zhao and Dominik Schmidt

Abstract: In this article we present a non-invasive glucose monitoring technique by measuring human body mid-infrared self-emission. The human body is a black body radiator that provides a stable temperature and infrared radiation; thus the human body is considered a continuous radiation energy source in the mid-infrared range. The fingerprint spectrum of glucose shows strong peaks between 8.5 m to 10.4 m, therefore, measuring the self-emission form human body in the mid-infrared range allows estimation of glucose concentration. Using a simple and miniaturizable design with a tunable Fabry-Perot filter (FPF) and a thermal detector, glucose concentration can be measured through the human skin.

Paper Nr: 16
Title:

Design of a 50MO Transimpedance Amplifier with 0.98fa/vHz Input Inferred Noise in a 0.18µM CMOS Technology

Authors:

William Wilson and Tom Chen

Abstract: Low noise and low power consumption are key requirements for high performance electrochemical biosensors. Noise performance directly affects the sensor’s ability to detect small amounts of target chemical compounds. These requirements present challenges for the design of frontend circuitry in electrochemical biosensors. These challenges are especially apparent for integrated electrochemical biosensor arrays, as sensor size is limited by tissue cell size and the desire to achieve a cellular scale resolution. This paper presents a low-noise and low-power transimpedance amplifier (TIA) intended for (but not limited to) use as an analog frontend in an electrochemical biosensor. The amplifier was designed on a commercial 0.18µm CMOS process. The overall design achieves a 50MΩ transimpedance gain with 981aA/√Hz input inferred noise, 8.06µW power consumption at 0.9V power supply, and occupies an overall silicon area of 0.0074mm2. To our best knowledge, the design presented in this paper achieved the best noise performance and power consumption among transimpedance amplifier designs reported to date.

Paper Nr: 18
Title:

Motion Capturing with Inertial Measurement Units and Kinect - Tracking of Limb Movement using Optical and Orientation Information

Authors:

Christoph Kalkbrenner, Steffen Hacker, Maria-Elena Algorri and Ronald Blechschmidt-Trapp

Abstract: This paper presents an approach for the tracking of limb movements using orientation information acquired from Inertial Measurement Units (IMUs) and optical information from a Kinect sensor. A new algorithm that uses a Kalman filter to fuse the Kinect and IMU data is presented. By fusing optical and orientation information we are able to track the movement of limb joints precisely, and almost drift-free. First, the IMU data is processed using the gradient descent algorithm proposed in (Madgwick et al., 2011) which calculates the orientation information of the IMU using acceleration and velocity data. Measurements made with IMUs tend to drift over time, so in a second stage we compensate for the drift using absolute position information obtained from a Microsoft Kinect sensor. The fusion of sensor data also allows to compensate for faulty or missing measurements. We have carried out some initial experiments on arm tracking. The first results show that our technique for data fusion has the potential to be used to record common medical exercises for clinical movement analysis.

Paper Nr: 28
Title:

Test Bench for Analysis of Harmful Vibrations Induced to Wheelchair Users

Authors:

A. Ababou, N. Ababou, T. Morsi and L. Boukhechem

Abstract: In this paper, a test bench for analysis of harmful vibrations that can be transmitted by manual wheelchair ti its user is presented. The vibration generating device developed in the laboratory and sensors positioning are described. Vibration measurements were carried out using four tri-axis MEMS accelerometers and a position sensor. Experimental data were noisy, so they were first filtered before acceleration amplitude can be assessed using two methods that we propose: a so-called ‘cyclogram method’ and ‘DFT principal peak signal magnitude’ on the other hand. The second one is faster and results showed that the prototype developed in the laboratory can provide harmful vibrations in 2-10Hz frequency range and can be used to check the vibration transmissibility of wheelchair.

Paper Nr: 29
Title:

Electrical Stimulation of the Transcutaneous Posterior Tibial Nerve for the Treatment of Patients with Detrusor Overactivity Due to Neurogenic Hiperactive Bladder in Multiple Sclerosis - A Case Study

Authors:

Fabiana S. B. Perez, Luciana R. Tenório Peixoto, Fabiano Soares, Cristiano Jacques Miosso and Adson F. da Rocha

Abstract: This case study evaluates the therapeutic use of Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation (TENS) of the posterior tibial nerve for treating one patient with multiple sclerosis (MS) showing signs of urinary incontinence (UI) due to detrusor overactivity (DO). Patient: MS with UI and sensory loss. Method: Using the current therapy twice a week for 20 minutes in 10 sessions and monitoring electrodes during electrical stimulation. Results: We observed an improvement in urge incontinence with reduced trips to the bathroom during the day and night. Both the post voiding sense of desire and pain during urination disappeared. Conclusions: This study shows an indication that the use of TENS in the current technique of posterior tibial nerve can reduce the uninhibited detrusor contractions and improve the quality of life of patients with MS due to a reduction of urinary incontinence and also reduce the number of times that the patient's urinates, thus providing better quality of sleep, humor, personal relationship, less embarrassment and reduction of stress. In this way, this study justifies a wide investigation with multiple subjects.

Paper Nr: 30
Title:

Mechanically Flexiable Biosensor for Detection of Photoplethysography

Authors:

Kian Davoudi, Moein Shayeganyan, Kouhyar Tavakolian and Bozena Kamisnka

Abstract: Acute cardiovascular failure could be detected by continuous monitoring of electrocardiogram (ECG). While electrode allocation on skin challenges quality of electrocardiograph, beat-to-beat heart rate obtained from photoplethysmography (PPG) could be used to indicate cardiovascular activity as an alternative to heart rate from ECG. In this paper we proposed a mechanically flexible PPG sensor integrated on thin layer of polymer. Mean and standard deviation of beat-to-beat heart rate was obtained from a flexible PPG sensor and compared to the beat-to-beat heart rate obtained from a commercial ECG and PPG devices. The standard deviation of beat-to-beat heart rate from ECG and PPG intervals were analysed by the Bland and Altman analysis. The corresponding 95% limits of agreement were estimated as 0.034 to -0.01 for PPG flexible sensor compared to ECG and as 0.0081 to 0.0037 for PPG flexible sensor compared to PPG commercial device. The good correlation between the measurement results demonstrated capability of our proposed mechanical flexible PPG sensor to be used as practical alternative to ECG for heart rate variability (HRV) analysis.

Paper Nr: 42
Title:

Continuous Core Body Temperature Estimation via SURFACE Temperature Measurements using Wearable Sensors - Is it Feasible?

Authors:

Kumar Saurabh, Hiteshwar Rao, Bharadwaj Amrutur and Asokan Sundarrajan

Abstract: Core body temperature is an important indicator of well being of humans. The commonly used methods and sites of measurement do not lend well for continuous measurement at home. However, continuous monitoring using non-invasive, small, low cost sensors could have many applications like detection of hypothermia and fever in low birth weight neonates in rural settings. We investigate the feasibility of making such measurements using only skin temperature sensors. Our initial sensor prototype is composed of flexible materials, with embedded high precision thermistors and is based on dual heat flux technique. Our initial experiments show that the reliable estimation of core temperature under varying ambient conditions and at different measurement sites is a challenge, but promising. Further work is needed to combine results from experimental measurements and theoretical simulations to provide good insights and enable accurate estimation of core body temperature for long term monitoring at home.

Paper Nr: 43
Title:

Snake Method Enhanced using Canny Approach Implementation for Cancer Cells Detection in Real Time

Authors:

Ahmad Chaddad, Camel Tanougast and Abbas Dandache

Abstract: Optical microscopy is widely used for cancer cell detection via biopsy. Unfortunately this technique requires a large number of samples to determine the grade of the cancer cells. Because time is critical in this operation, a search for a method to reduce the length of this process is important. One such method showing promise is the implementation of the snake method for cancer cell detection. Ideally, this method will aim toward minimizing cost while maximizing efficiency. Using optical microscopy at LCOMS, we performed a proof-of-concept study to distinguish between normal and abnormal cells. We developed a snake/active contour method by which several curves move within images in order to find normal/abnormal cell boundaries. Abnormal cell identification typically takes more than one hour; however. The implementation of field programmable gate array (FPGA) technology solves this problem. A novel embedded architecture of the snake method is developed for an efficient and fast computation of active contour used in high throughput image analysis applications, where time performance is critical. This architecture allows for a scalable and a totally embedded processing on FPGA of a large number of images. The architecture of the snake method is able to detect objects from images which have irregular shapes, such as carcinoma cell types. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the approach, the architecture is implemented on Xilinx ISE 12.3-FPGA technology using Verilog hardware description language (VHDL). The very promising results using Snake method implementation and real cancer cell images from optical microscopy demonstrate the potentials of our approach.

Paper Nr: 45
Title:

Handwritten Processing for Pre Diagnosis of Alzheimer Disease

Authors:

Donato Impedovo, Giuseppe Pirlo, Donato Barbuzzi, Alessandro Balestrucci and Sebastiano Impedovo

Abstract: Based on neuromuscular transfer function of the handwriting system, in this paper a non invasive pre diagnosis system for Alzheimer disease alert is proposed. It is well known in fact, that writing originates from spike trains produced within the Central Nervous System (CNS) and more specifically, inside the 4-th and the 6-th regions of the Bradman's map and then transmitted through the first and second order axons to the spinal cord to control the muscles involved in the handwriting as the arm, the forearm, the hand and the pen or pencil utilized for the writing. More specifically, in this work is proposed a new method, not invasive, for early diagnosis of degenerative disability, it can be also useful for monitoring activities related to the progression of neuromuscular disease in order to evaluate the changing related also to the efficiency of the therapies used. Benefit can be obtained not only for the medical field but also for the pharmaceutical developments. Specifically in the paper, the results of some experiments have been focused by considering a certain number of persons some of which affect by Alzheimer disease.

Paper Nr: 48
Title:

Pressure Sensor for Gastrointestinal Intraluminal Measuring

Authors:

L. R. Silva, P. J. Sousa, L. M. Goncalves and G. Minas

Abstract: This paper reports an innovative technique to measure intraluminal pressure in the gastrointestinal tract (GI), which is typically performed through an exam called oesophageal manometry. This type of measurement is performed with a catheter, comprising several pressure sensors along it, and gives important information for the diagnosis of motility and peristalsis disorders in the GI tract. The presented work explores the use of PDMS polymer (Polydimethylsiloxane) as the support material for the pressure sensors. These PDMS layers are placed in the pressure measurements sites of the catheter. The presented work also explores different materials for the metal strain gauges that act as the pressure sensors. Due to the microfabrication techniques, the presented pressure sensors allow on-chip integration (with other microsensors for GI diagnosis), and its pressure measurements will add essential diagnostic information, not only for the GI motility and peristalsis disorders, but also in the early cancer detection. The initial mechanical tests showed promising results for the intended application. After optimization of the fabrication process, different experiments are scheduled for simulating the pressure signals that would occur in vivo conditions. In summary this method will permit high integration and good sensitivity measurement, while maintaining low fabrication costs.

Paper Nr: 50
Title:

Pre-impact Fall Detection using Wearable Sensor Unit

Authors:

Soonjae Ahn, Isu Shin, Bora Jeong and Youngho Kim

Abstract: In this study, we verified our pre-impact fall detection algorithm through a clinical trials using wearable sensor (accelerometer and gyro sensor) at waist. Forty male volunteers participated in the clinical trial (three types of falls and seven types of ADLs). Results show that falls could be detected with an average lead-time of 530ms before the impact occurs, with no false alarms (100% specificity) and no incorrect detects (100% sensitivity). Our algorithm for pre-impact fall detection with a wearable sensor unit could be very helpful to minimize fall risk.

Paper Nr: 52
Title:

Preliminary Design of Bilio-digestive Anastomosis by Magnetic Compression

Authors:

Mélanie Courtaudière, Nicolas Andreff and Stéphane Koch

Abstract: Some experiments have been realized to determine the characteristics of magnets allowing for bilio-digestive anastomosis by magnetic compression using a ferromagnetic gel and a magnet. The attraction distance between the ferromagnetic gel and the magnet was determined experimentally, under several configurations: magnet shape, strength, number and arrangements. Two magnets with a strength of 14,000 Gauss and a diameter of 12.7mm were necessary to attract 0.353mL of ferrofluid contained in a plastic sheath placed at 1cm of the magnet. So the magnet is able to attract the ferrofluid. However, this procedure needs a large powerful magnet which is not compatible for an immediate use in the human body. Nevertheless, this preliminary result opens promising investigation paths.

Paper Nr: 53
Title:

Hinged External Fixators for Knee Rehabilitation - Kinematic Concept of a Two Degree-of-Freedom System

Authors:

Gianluca Gatti, Shadi Shweiki, Giorgia Lupinacci, Gionata Fragomeni and Guido Danieli

Abstract: Hinged external fixators are used in knee dislocation treatment, where they have shown their effectiveness. They are proposed as a technique to protect ligament reconstructions while allowing early postoperative rehabilitation. A hinged external fixator usually consists of two rigid links connected to each other by a revolute joint. Each link is then fixed to the femur and tibia, via direct pin fixation. A single-axis hinged external fixator thus well accommodates the main knee movement, i.e. the flexion and extension. This paper presents an investigation on the conceptual idea of a double-axis hinged external fixator for the human knee, which accommodates for both flexion-extension and longitudinal internal-external rotation of the tibia respect to the femur. The potential advantage of such a design is foreseen in the increasing range of motion in postoperative knee rehabilitation and a better accommodation of natural knee motion.

Paper Nr: 63
Title:

Assessing the Validity of Attitude and Heading Reference Systems for Biomechanical Evaluation of Motions - A Methodological Proposal

Authors:

Karina Lebel, Patrick Boissy, Christian Duval, Mandar Jog, Mark Speechley, Anthony Karelis, Claude Vincent, James Frank and Roderick Edwards

Abstract: Background: Attitude and Heading Reference Systems’ (AHRS) popularity in biomechanics has been growing rapidly over the past few years. However, the limits of operation and performances of such systems for motion capture are highly dependent upon their conditions of use and the environment they operate in. The objectives of this paper are to: (1) propose a methodology for the characterization of the criterion of validity of accuracy of AHRS in a human biomechanical context; and (2) suggest a set of outcome measures to assess the accuracy of AHRS. Methods: The criterion validity of accuracy is established using an optical motion tracking gold standard under standardized human motions. Results: Global assessment of accuracy is derived by comparing the orientation data provided by the AHRS to those given by the gold standard using a coefficient of multiple correlation. Peak values and RMS difference between both sets of orientation data are also analysed to complete the accuracy portrait. The methodology proposed herein is verified for the knee during regular walk. Conclusion: The proposed methodology and analyses take into consideration the complexities and processes required to assess the accuracy of AHRS in their context of use and provide a standardized approach to report.

Paper Nr: 64
Title:

Estimation of Arterial Stiffness through Pulse Transit Time Measurement

Authors:

Avinash S. Vaidya, T. S. L. Radhika, M. B. Srinivas and Mannan Mridha

Abstract: Early detection of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and its treatment is significantly expected to reduce the mortality rate across the world. While several diagnostic techniques have been developed for early detection of the CVD, recent focus has been on measuring the ‘arterial stiffness’, which appears to be a major indicator of onset of cardio vascular disease. In this work, authors consider three mathematical models that relate pulse wave velocity (PWV) with arterial stiffness. While one model considers blood to be a non-viscous and incompressible fluid, the other considers it to be a viscous and compressible. Pulse transit time has been measured experimentally for five different individuals of different ages and heights from where PWV has been estimated. Using values of PWV, Young’s modulus of elasticity has been derived. Data related to arteries such as radius, wall thickness, density and viscosity of blood have been taken from published literature where these parameters have been measured using techniques such as MRI. Initial results indicate that different models predict different estimates for arterial stiffness that depend on assumptions made.

Paper Nr: 66
Title:

The New Directive 2013/35/EU on Occupational Exposure to Electromagnetic Fields and Electrical Workers’ Use of Cardiac Pacemakers

Authors:

Leena Korpinen, Rauno Pääkkönen, Martine Souques and Vesa Virtanen

Abstract: The aim of this paper was to investigate, the new directive 2013/35/EU on occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields and the electrical workers’ use of cardiac pacemakers (PMs). The directive includes minimum requirements for the protection of workers from risks to their health and safety. In addition there is information about medical implants, e.g., cardiac pacemakers and possible interference problems. In this paper we describe our earlier studies of PMs and analyze where it is possible to find such high electric or magnetic fields that the exposure can influence the PM. Based on experiments at Tampere University of Technology, the electric field under 400 kV power line may disturb a PM, when the electric field is below the low action level (10 kV/m). The risk of disturbances is not considered to be high, because only one of the several PMs showed a major disturbance.

Paper Nr: 68
Title:

A Low Cost Design of Powered Ankle-Knee Prosthesis for Lower Limb Amputees - Preliminary Results

Authors:

Ruben C. Martinez, Roberto L. Avitia, Miguel E. Bravo and Marco A. Reyna

Abstract: In this paper we described a new kind of a powered knee and powered ankle prosthesis for individuals who have suffered a complete or partial lower limb amputation. Our prototype prosthesis consist of two modules, the ankle module and the knee module. The first contains a unidirectional spring configured in parallel with a force-controlled actuator. This spring is intended to store energy in dorsiflexion, and then released it to assist power plantar flexion. The knee modules consist of a series of elastic clutch actuators and a unidirectional spring positioned in parallel to the motor. Preliminary results show two modules designs and ankle module prosthesis prototype almost complete. Two modules working together will enhance the performance of amputee individual, producing more natural gait and reducing the metabolic cost at walking in level-ground.

Paper Nr: 69
Title:

Can Simple Electronic Instrumentation Associated with Basic Training Help Users of Assistive Devices? - Presenting and Verifying the Effectiveness of a Biofeedback Module for an Instrumented Crutch

Authors:

Renato Varoto, Aline Midori Rodrigues Sato, Carolina Lins and Alberto Cliquet Jr.

Abstract: Crutches are prescribed towards compensating lower limb overload and adding sensory information through upper limb. However, adequate loads are required to avoid upper limb lesions and further lower limb injuries. Therefore, this work describes the development and application of a biofeedback module for a Lofstrand crutch, based on a simple electronic instrumentation. The goal is to train the user to apply proper load on the crutch. Basic training was performed by healthy subjects before and after static and dynamic activities. Results showed the feasibility of the device and the effectiveness of the training to reach the target (load on the crutch of 20% of body weight).

Paper Nr: 70
Title:

A New Integration Method for Mounting and in vivo Handling of Sub-mm Flexible Cuff Electrode

Authors:

Fábio Rodrigues and Paulo Mendes

Abstract: Electrical stimulation of peripheral nerves is commonly used in both research and clinical fields. Cuff electrodes are one possible interface between nerves and the stimulation microsystem. Among cuff electrodes, flexible, polyimide-based devices have been demonstrating good and consistent results for the past 15 years. Regarding mounting and mechanical stability of flexible electrodes for in vivo trials, improvements are still due. A new concept aiming at the integration of polyimide-based devices in an elastic handling structure was developed. By taking advantage of PDMS elasticity and moulding, this new integration method provides surgeons with the ability to move and to rotate the cuff minimizing nerve-electrode contact and, consequently, nerve damages. A 9 parts stainless steel mould was designed and fabricated to allow integration of polyimide electrode arrays together with the PDMS mounting structure and a print circuit board. Furthermore, with the fabricated mould it is possible to achieve a final cylindrical channel with diameter of 800 µm, as well as handling strips to open and close the cuff.

Paper Nr: 72
Title:

Electrical Stimulation System to Relax the Jaw Elevation Muscles in People with Nocturnal Bruxism

Authors:

Pablo Aqueveque, Roberto Lopez and Esteban Pino

Abstract: Nocturnal bruxism (NB) is a temporomandibular disorder characterized by an excessive clenching and involuntary parafunctional grinding of the teeth during sleep. In this paper, we present a device that generates electrical stimulation to produce an inhibitory action of the muscles involved in the elevation of the jaw. The device measures the electromyographic (EMG) signal of the left temporalis anterior (LTa) muscle to determine the intensity of contraction. It then, stimulates the right mental nerve to produce a decrease in the contraction intensity of the jaw elevation muscles. The device was used by one bruxist subject for 12 nights. The results showed that, on average, the percentage decrease of the EMG activity was 43.55% when a bruxism event occurred. The events of nocturnal bruxism appeared mostly one and three hours after going to sleep. In conclusion, the electrical stimulation device generated an important inhibitory action of the LTa muscle when the subject was performing nocturnal bruxism. Thus, this result indicates that the device could be useful as a possible treatment for bruxism.

Paper Nr: 73
Title:

Design, Development and Implementation of µSPC Phantom for Quality Control in Micro-SPECT / CT and Micro-PET / CT Systems - Qualitative Study

Authors:

Hatem Besbes, Nejla Majoul, Fatma Ben Hamida and Philippe Choquet

Abstract: The μSPC phantom is designed for the quality control of micro-SPECT/CT and micro-PET/CT systems. However, it is an assembly of six patterns stored in a cylindrical box and enabling to control both micro-SPECT unit in terms of uniformity, linearity and spatial resolution than micro-CT unit in terms of uniformity , linearity, spatial resolution, diffusion rate, low contrast detectability, linearity of Hounsfield coefficients and slice thickness. The construction material is plexiglass. As for the implementation, it was made on a micro-SPECT/CT machine of the type "speCZT eXplore CT 120".

Paper Nr: 76
Title:

An Improved Electrolytic Pump for Potential Drug Delivery Applications

Authors:

Ying Yi, Ulrich Buttner, Armando Arpys Carreno and Ian G. Foulds

Abstract: This work presents a novel prototype of an electrolytic pump that uses a platinum (Pt) coated-nickel mesh in the pumping chamber for increasing the recombination rate electrolysis products. The Pt coated-nickel mesh that acts as a catalytic reforming element is able to significantly reduce the pulsed pumping period of the pump, resulting in a more controllable system. Our presented electrolytic pump can provide the cyclical actuation required for a solid drug in reservoir delivery system and shows potential application in the field of drug delivery.