BIODEVICES 2016 Abstracts


Full Papers
Paper Nr: 10
Title:

Low Cost 3D-Printed Biosensor Arrays for Protein-based Cancer Diagnostics based on Electrochemiluminescence

Authors:

James F. Rusling, Karteek Kadimisetty, Spundana Malla, Gregory W. Bishop and Jennifer E. Satterwhite-Warden

Abstract: Development and fabrication of bioanalytical devices by 3D printing offers revolutionary new routes to low cost clinical diagnostic devices for molecular measurements. Relevant to future protein-based cancer diagnostics, we describe and review here our recent development of prototype protein immunoarray devices using desktop Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) and stereolithographic 3D printers. All these system feature sensitive electro-optical detection by a method called electrochemiluminescence (ECL). Our first 3D-printed immunoarray features screen-printed sensors in which manual manipulations enable gravity flow reagent delivery for measurement of 3 proteins at detection limits of 0.3 to 0.5 pg/mL. ECL detection is achieved in an open channel on integrated disposable screen-printed sensor elements. We then address the issue of printing and processing optically clear plastic using a stereolithographic printer to build a closed ECL detection chamber. Finally, we describe a prototype 3D-printed microprocessor-controlled enclosed microfluidic ECL immunoarray featuring reagent reservoirs, micropumps and clear plastic detection chamber with printed nanowells for ECL emission.

Paper Nr: 14
Title:

Discontinuous Dielectrophoresis - A Technique for Investigating the Response of Loosely Adherent Cells to High Shear Stress

Authors:

Rebecca Soffe, Sara Baratchi, Shi-yang Tang, Peter McIntyre, Arnan Mitchell and Khashayar Khoshmanesh

Abstract: The functioning of cells under mechanical stress influences several cellular processes, for example proliferation, organogenesis, and transcription. Current techniques used to examine mechanical stress on loosely adherent cells, are however, primarily focused on single individual cells being stimulated, or require time-consuming surface coating techniques; and are limited in the level of shear stress that can be supplied to immobilised cells. Here we report the process of the technique, discontinuous dielectrophoresis; which enables high shear stress analysis of clusters of immobilised loosely adherent cells, we have analysed the performance of the system using Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast cells, up to a shear stress of 42 dyn/cm2. Additionally, we provide application experimental results from investigating shear induced calcium signalling of HEK-293-TRPV4 cells at flow rates of 2.5, and 120 µl/min, corresponding to shear stress levels of 0.875 and 42 dyn/cm2, respectively. In summary, discontinuous dielectrophoresis will enable the investigation of the mechanotransduction behaviour of loosely adherent cells under physiologically relevant shear stresses. Additionally, discontinuous dielectrophoresis provides the capability for parallelism, and dynamic control over the microenvironment, as previously explored by different microfluidic platforms without the capacity for high shear stress analysis of loosely adherent cells.

Paper Nr: 17
Title:

A Robust Multichannel Lung Sound Recording Device

Authors:

Elmar Messner, Martin Hagmüller, Paul Swatek and Franz Pernkopf

Abstract: This paper presents a robust multichannel lung sound recording device (LSRD) for automatic lung sound classification. Compared to common approaches, we improved the usability and the robustness against body sounds and ambient noise. We developed a novel lung sound transducer (LST) and an appropriate attachment method realized as a foam pad. For analogue prefiltering, preamplification, and digitization of the lung sound signal, we use a composition of low-cost standard audio recording equipment. Furthermore, we developed a suitable recording software. In our experiments, we show the robustness of our LSRD against ambient noise, and we demonstrate the achieved signal quality. The LST’s microphone features a signal-to-noise ratio of SNR = 80 dB. Therefore, we obtain a bandwidth of up to a frequency of f ≈ 2500 Hz for vesicular lung sound recordings. Compared to the attachment of the LST with self-adhesive tape, the foam pad achieves an attenuation of ambient noise of up to 50 dB in the relevant frequency range. The result of this work is a multichannel recording device, which enables a fast gathering of valuable lung sounds in noisy clinical environments without impeding the daily routines.

Paper Nr: 22
Title:

New Fabrication Method of Plastic Micro-Lens Arrays for Researching on Compound Eyes of Insects

Authors:

Toshiyuki Horiuchi and Ryunosuke Sasaki

Abstract: To develop artificial compound eyes, sizes of element lenses of typical insects were actually investigated, and a new simple and low-cost method for fabricating plastic micro-lens arrays was developed. It was thought essential to research on artificial compound eyes that lens parameters were freely controllable by our minds. For this reason, a new easy and low-cost fabrication method had to be developed. In the new method, original molds of micro-lens arrays with concave profiles were formed lithographically in a thick resist film. The concave resist patterns were printed using a handmade 1/19 reduction projection exposure system by only one exposure. Using intentionally defocused exposure, curvature radiuses were controllable in a very wide range of 21-85 μm for the same transparent hexagon patterns with an inscribed circle diameter of 26.3 μm. It was also verified that the resist-mold patterns were faithfully replicated to epoxy resin. After pouring the liquid resin onto the silicon wafer chip with resist-mold patterns, hardened solid resin with micro-lens arrays was separated from the wafer chip by peeling off the wafer chip mechanically. It is promising to fabricate micro-lens arrays with aimed lens parameters although some more subjects should be cared from now on.

Paper Nr: 24
Title:

Direct Detection of Bacteria on Fresh Produce

Authors:

Shin Horikawa, Yating Chai, Howard C. Wikle, James M. Barbaree and Bryan A. Chin

Abstract: This paper presents a revolutionary method of bacterial detection that directly detects and quantifies the presence of specific bacteria on the surfaces of fresh produce without sample preparation (water rinse, soak, stomaching) and/or enrichment. The speed of detection is from 2 to 10 minutes with a limit of detection in a range of 10^2 to 10^4 cfu/mm^2. The specificity of detection is 2 in 10^6 background bacteria. This technology was awarded a $20,000 prize in the first United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Food Safety Challenge. The method combines wireless magnetoelastic (ME) biosensors and a surface-scanning detector for rapid determination of bacterial contamination. Tests were conducted on tomatoes and grapes spiked with different concentrations of Salmonella Typhimurium. The resonant frequency changes of the biosensors were found to be dependent on the surface concentration of Salmonella. Detection limits were found to be affected by the surface roughness of the food. A 90-second video of a test for Salmonella on tomato can be viewed at http://eng.auburn.edu/food-safety. The method presented in this paper is envisioned for use at ports of entry for the swift screening of foods.

Paper Nr: 25
Title:

Thumbs-Up - Wearable Sensing Device for Detecting Hand-to-Mouth Compulsive Habits

Authors:

Asaph Azaria, Brian Mayton and Joseph Paradiso

Abstract: Thumbs-Up explores a novel sensing method for detection of hand-to-mouth compulsive habits. Using electrical bio-impedance spectroscopy and inertial measurement units, a prototype system was implemented. The system can easily be worn around the arm and may perhaps be integrated into future wearable devices. It recognises occurrences of the habits in real-time, allowing monitoring and immediate interventions. These have so far been very limited, impeding behavioural studies and the development of therapeutic treatments. Throughout this paper the method’s feasibility is demonstrated and aspects of its performance are explored. We present an approach to process the bio-impedance signals and associate them with possible body postures. A positioning strategy optimises the device’s sensitivity and increases its efficacy. Machine learning algorithms are leveraged to infer the hand-to-mouth detection. We achieve 92% detection accuracy for recurrent usage and 90% accuracy for users that have not been previously encountered.

Paper Nr: 29
Title:

A Flexible PET-based Wearable Sensor for Arterial Pulse Waveform Measurement

Authors:

Dan Wang, Dean Krusienski and Zhili Hao

Abstract: In light of the need of health monitoring, the paper presents a flexible polyethylene terephthalate (PET)-based wearable sensor for arterial pulse waveform measurement. The sensor encompasses a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microstructure embedded with an electrolyte-enabled 5×1 transducer array, which spans 6mm and has a spatial resolution of 1.5mm. A pulse signal exerts a deflection on the microstructure and is recorded as a resistance change by a transducer at the site of the pulse. An untrained individual can easily align the sensor on a targeted artery with a negligible margin and then acquire the arterial pulse waveform continuously and non-invasively. This sensor is fabricated using microfluidics technology and thus features low cost for mass production. The sensor is hand-held on an artery and records its pulse signal for a 10s period, which bears baseline drift, due to the respiration and the motion artifact. Discrete Meyer Wavelet Transform (DMWT) and Cubic Spline Estimation (CSE) are employed to remove baseline drift in a pulse signal. The pulse waveform is expressed in terms of the sensor deflection as a function of time. Carotid arterial pulse waveforms are measured by the sensor on three subjects at rest and on two subjects post-exercise. Additionally, radial arterial waveforms are measured on one subject at rest. The measured pulse pattern change of the two subjects between at rest and post-exercise is consistent with the literature. As the pulse transmits from central (carotid) to peripheral (radial) for one subject, the ratio of amplitude of main peak to amplitude of dicrotic wave goes up and the up-stroke time becomes shorter. This is consistent with the related observations in the literature. Thus, the limited amount of data collected here demonstrates the feasibility of using the sensor as a wearable health monitoring device.

Paper Nr: 31
Title:

Electrochemical Analysis of Accelerated Aging of PEDOT-PTS Coated Screen-printed Electrodes

Authors:

Nathalia Peixoto, Tjerignimin Silue, Catalina Vallejo-Giraldo and Manus Biggs

Abstract: We have developed a deposition method that enhances charge delivery of screen printed electrodes by up to six times through electrochemical deposition of poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):p-toluenesulfonate (PEDOT-PTS). In order to elucidate the effects of PEDOT-PTS deposition on the long-term electrochemical characterization of screen-printed electrodes we characterized electrode stability with cyclic voltammetry and impedance spectroscopy at room temperature and at 47 °C. A deposition current of 0.4 mA/cm2 guarantees coverage of the working electrode conductive area with no spill of the conductive polymer through the insulating tracks. Control electrodes show charge storage capacity of 0.25 mC. PEDOT-PTS deposited electrodes are stable for over 4 months and present cathodic charge storage capacity of 1.25 mC.

Paper Nr: 35
Title:

A Microfluidic-based Tactile Sensor for Palpating Mice Tumor Tissues

Authors:

Yichao Yang, Garett Johnson, Dean Krusienski, Siqi Guo, Cheng Lin and Zhili Hao

Abstract: In light of the need of tissue palpation for Robotics-assisted Minimally Invasive Surgery (RMIS), this paper presents a microfluidic-based tactile sensor for palpating mice tissues for tumor localization. The core of the sensor is a 3x3 sensing-plate/transducer array built into a single polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microstructure, with a transducer spacing of 3.75mmx1.5mm. Mounted on a robot, the sensor is pressed against a tissue region with a pre-defined indentation depth pattern, and consequently the stiffness distribution across the tissue region translates to the deflection distribution of the sensing-plate array and is captured by the transducer array underneath as resistance changes. Thus, the recorded data on a tissue region is the sensor deflection as a function of the indentation depth. While the continuous manner of the sensor interacting with a tissue region alleviates the error resulting from non-ideal normal contact between the sensor and the tissue region, the error related to uncertainty in contact point is removed by interpreting the palpation results in terms of the slope of the sensor deflection versus the indentation depth. Two mice tumor tissues are palpated using the sensor. After their noise being removed, the raw data on the two tissues are processed to obtain their slope distribution, the slope error and the percentage error in the slope. The slope distribution of each tissue clearly illustrates the location of a tumor. The palpation results also indicate that this sensor can be integrated into a robotic-assisted system for tumor localization.

Paper Nr: 51
Title:

Development of Multi-parameter Analyser based on Electrochemical Urea Biosensors and Electrolyte Electrodes for Monitoring of Hemodialysis Patients

Authors:

Julija Razumiene, Vidute Gureviciene, Marius Dagys, Ieva Sakinyte, Algimantas Jonuska, Laurynas Rimsevicius, Svitlana Marchenko and Alexey Soldatkin

Abstract: The idea of developing multi-parameter urea analyser comprising urea, Na+ and K+ selective electrodes has been considered. For this purpose the urea biosensors based on urease and recombinant urease working in amperometric and potentiometric way were developed. The working parameters of both urea biosensors were studied and optimized. Possibilities of real samples analysis using the developed biosensors were shown by measuring urea concentrations in blood dialysate taken from patients with renal failure. Both the potentiometric and the amperometric biosensors demonstrated high degree of signal reproducibility (the relative standard deviation of responses did not exceed 5 %). Change of sodium and potassium concentrations during blood hemodialysis is dangerous life-threatening condition and their monitoring is an important feature of point-of-care analyser. For this purpose high integrity commercial Na+ and K + selective electrodes were analysed and our own signal amplification and processing system proposed.

Paper Nr: 54
Title:

Radiation Exposure Analysis in 3D Cancer Treatment

Authors:

Dmitriy Dubovitskiy and Valeri Kouznetsov

Abstract: Dosimetry in the process of treatment of cancer tumour by ionising radiation. It is important and sometimes very challenging due to the fact that it is necessary to measure the radiation dose in vivo on small areas on the surface of the composite relief. Recently, in order to reduce the radiation dose to healthy tissues and concentration of the therapeutic effect of radiation directly on the tumour application method of three-dimensional (3D) irradiation started, in which radiation beams enter the body from different directions concentrating on the tumour. New methods of treatment correspondingly require more precise and sophisticated methods of dosimetry. Existing methods of 3D dose measurement are highly labor-intensive and generally suffer from low accuracy. In this paper, we propose the technical method of 3D measurement of the dose in real-time and approaches to build volume model of the dose distribution inside the patient’s body using object recognition technique.

Paper Nr: 59
Title:

Preliminary Evaluation of a Silent Speech Interface based on Intra-Oral Magnetic Sensing

Authors:

Lam A. Cheah, Jie Bai, Jose A. Gonzalez, James M. Gilbert, Stephen R. Ell, Phil D. Green and Roger K. Moore

Abstract: This paper addresses the hardware challenges faced in developing a practical silent speech interface (SSI) for post-laryngectomy speech rehabilitation. Although a number of SSIs have been developed, many are still deemed as impractical due to a high degree of intrusiveness and discomfort, hence limiting their transition to outside of the laboratory environment. The aim of this paper is to build upon our previous work, in developing a user-centric prototype and enhancing its desirable features. A new Permanent Magnet Articulography (PMA) system is presented which fits within the palatal cavity of the user’s mouth, giving unobtrusive appearance and high portability. The prototype is comprised of a miniaturised circuit constructed using commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) components and is implemented in the form of a dental retainer, which is mounted under roof of the user’s mouth and firmly clasps onto the upper teeth. Preliminary evaluation via speech recognition experiments demonstrates that the intraoral prototype achieves word recognition accuracy of 75.7%, slightly lower than its predecessor. Nonetheless, the intraoral design is expected to improve the stability and robustness of the PMA system with a much improved appearance since it can be completely hidden inside the user’s mouth.

Short Papers
Paper Nr: 15
Title:

Kinect V2 for Upper Limb Rehabilitation Applications - A Preliminary Analysis on Performance Evaluation

Authors:

Giorgia Lupinacci, Gianluca Gatti, Agostino Angilica and Maurizio Muzzupappa

Abstract: Many systems have been developed to facilitate upper limb rehabilitation procedures in human subjects affected by trauma or pathologies and to retrieve information about patient performance. The Microsoft Kinect sensor can be used in this context to track body motion and detect objects. In order to evaluate the usability of this device in the upper limb rehabilitation field, a comparison with a marker-based system is presented in this paper. The upper limb motion is specifically considered and the performance on its detection and tracking is evaluated. The effect of the relative location between the Kinect and the observed subject is also investigated through experimental tests performed in different configurations.

Paper Nr: 21
Title:

Smart Sensing System for the Detection of Specific Human Motion Symptoms of the Parkinson’s Disease

Authors:

A. Kita, P. Lorenzi, G. Romano, R. Rao, R. Parisi, A. Suppa, M. Bologna, A. Berardelli and F. Irrera

Abstract: We propose two different wearable wireless sensing systems based on Inertial Measurement Units for the home monitoring of specific symptoms of the Parkinson’s disease. In one configuration just one sensor is inserted in a headset, in the other configuration two sensors are positioned on the patient’s shins. They recognize and classify noticeable motion disorders potentially dangerous for patients and give an audio feedback. The systems use dedicated algorithms for real time processing of the raw signals from accelerometers and gyroscopes, one of which is based on an artificial neural network and another on a time-based analysis. The headset system detects satisfactorily a wide class of motion irregularities including the trunk disorders, but is poorly reliable on Parkinson’s patients. The other system with sensors on the shins provides an early detection of the freezing of gait with excellent performance in terms of sensitivity and precision, and timely provides a rhythmic auditory stimulation to the patient for releasing the involuntary block state.

Paper Nr: 26
Title:

Screen-printed Biochemical Sensors for Detection of Ammonia Levels in Sweat – Towards Integration with Vital Parameter Monitoring Sports Gear

Authors:

Susanne Oertel, Michael P. M. Jank, Lothar Frey, Christian Hofmann, Nadine Lang and Matthias Struck

Abstract: The fabrication of fully screen-printed biochemical sensors employing planar integrated solid state electrodes is described. The sensors are developed to fit wearable devices and target the monitoring of ammonia respectively ammonium levels in sweat. Increased ammonium levels in sweat correlate to physical overstrain of muscles, indicated by the breakdown of proteins in muscle cells. The sensor on flexible foil uses an ion-selective working electrode and a reference electrode for potentiometric measurements of the electromotoric force, EMF. For the ammonium ion-selective electrode a cocktail of nonactin was deposited. The printed sensors were calibrated with ammonium standard solutions at a working range between 10-5 M to 0.1 M which corresponds to the range of physiological levels of ammonium in sweat before and during physical strain. The potentiometric characterization of the ion-selective sensor shows a linear behaviour of the EMF versus pC values with a Nernstian slope of 59.3 mV ± 11.2 mV. The combination of low-cost printed sensors, potentiometric sensing, and the integration with textiles represents a very attractive approach for non-invasive monitoring of individual sports performance to prevent overload during physical training.

Paper Nr: 27
Title:

microRNA detection with an active nanodevice FoF1-ATPase

Authors:

Yao-Gen Shu and Zhong-Can Ou-Yang

Abstract: We have developed a novel nanodevice constituted with a rotary motor and a ``battery'', FoF1-ATPase and chromatophore. The latter can be recharged enough energy by light so that the former can rotates at about 1000 r.p.m for more than one hour. If the nanodevice is captured by a target such as miRNA and processively rotate for 30 minutes, the number of targets will be amplified by 100000 ATP molecules. This method has potential to be developed into an ultrasensitive biosensor to detect low expressed targets such as miRNA.

Paper Nr: 30
Title:

Embedded Sensors System Applied to Wearable Motion Analysis in Sports

Authors:

Aurélien Valade, Antony Costes, Anthony Bouillod, Morgane Mangin, P. Acco, Georges Soto-Romero, Jean-Yves Fourniols and Frederic Grappe

Abstract: This paper presents two different wearable motion capture systems for motion analysis in sports, based on inertial measurement units (IMU). One system, called centralized processing, is based on FPGA + microcontroller architecture while the other, called distributed processing, is based on multiple microcontrollers + wireless communication architecture. These architectures are designed to target multi-sports capabilities, beginning with tri-athlete equipment and thus have to be non-invasive and integrated in sportswear, be waterproofed and autonomous in energy. To characterize them, the systems are compared to lab quality references.

Paper Nr: 33
Title:

An Unobtrusive Wearable Device for Ambulatory Monitoring of Pulse Transit Time to Estimate Central Blood Pressure

Authors:

Hanne O. Austad, Jon Vedum, Morten H. Røed, Steffen Dalgard, Tomas Brødreskift, Anders E. Liverud, Frode Strisland and Trine M. Seeberg

Abstract: There is a clinical need for improved ambulatory, frequent and unobtrusive monitoring of blood pressure and cardiac parameters like systolic time intervals. Truly unobtrusive wearable devices combining impedance cardiography with other sensors may be one possible solution. The IsenseU-BP+ device presented in this article measures single channel ECG, impedance cardiography and photo plethysmography at the chest. The device also measures activity and posture, as well as skin temperature. In this study, we report on the possibility to use these signals to measure pulse transit time for estimating blood pressure changes. Six subjects has been tested. Four of them showed good correlation between PTT and mean arterial pressure while two of the subjects had too low signal to noise ratio in the photoplethysmography signal for good estimation of PTT. Thus these results show that the quality of the raw data is promising for calculating a pulse transit time that shows good coherence with mean arterial pressure.

Paper Nr: 34
Title:

Assessment of Hand Rehabilitation after Hand Surgery by Means of a Sensory Glove

Authors:

Giovanni Saggio, Laura Sbernini, Anna De Leo, Mostafa Awaid, Nicola Di Lorenzo and Achille L. Gaspari

Abstract: The assessment of hand functions after hand surgery treatment is essential to address the optimal rehabilitation procedures for any patient. To this aim, the current procedures anachronistically rely mainly on manual goniometers (highly prone to human errors) and know-how of experienced medical staffs (potentially prone to biased judgment), so that there is room for improvements in objective measurements of hand capabilities and new technological systems are very welcome. In particular, systems based on sensory glove are gaining more and more relevance in acquiring hand movement capabilities. Within this frame, in this research the Range of Motion (ROM) for all fingers and the ability of participants (health vs. patient subjects) to repeat two ADL (Activities of Daily Living)-based tasks were investigated. As a result, the glove-based system was evaluated in its feasibility for the assessment of hand function in clinical practice and rehabilitation settings.

Paper Nr: 37
Title:

New Maskless Lithography System for Fabricating Biodevices using Light-Emitting Diodes and Squared Optical Fibers

Authors:

Jun Watanabe, Jun-ya Iwasaki and Toshiyuki Horiuchi

Abstract: A new low-cost lithography system convenient for fabricating biodevices was developed. Using the new system, various patterns of cell arrays, chamber arrays, flow paths of micro-fluidic devices, and others were easily printed without preparing any reticles or masks. In the system, light-emitting diodes (LEDs) were used as exposure sources and squared optical fibers arrayed in a 10×10 matrix were used as the combination of a secondary light source and a reticle. Light rays emitted from each LED were individually led to each fiber, and bright or dark of each LED was assigned by a personal computer. As a result, it became possible to print arbitrary patterns without preparing any reticles or masks. In addition to the ordinary patterning using various lightening maps of LEDs and their stitching, scan exposure was also tried. When bright images of optical fiber ends were scanned on a resist film by moving the wafer stage, long patterns appropriate for micro fluidic paths were very smoothly formed.

Paper Nr: 38
Title:

In Situ Observation of Diffusion Mixing in a Micro-fluidic Mixer

Authors:

Yuta Morizane and Toshiyuki Horiuchi

Abstract: Mixing of laminar two-liquid flows in micro-mixers was visualized and analyzed by mixing alkaline solution and phenolphthalein. Micro-mixers with flow paths fabricated by optical projection lithography were used. The two liquids were injected using a syringe pump from Y-shape inlets, and states of mixing were observed using an optical microscope with a high-resolution digital camera. By using above mentioned two liquids, transparent liquids were colored in red when they were mixed. For this season, the mixing was clearly visualized. Because Reynolds number of the flow was so small as 0.27-17.7, the flow became the laminar one. Accordingly, two liquids were not mixed near the junction where they were joined together. However, they were gradually mixed by diffusion during they flowed in the mixer paths. It was clarified that the mixing ratio varied depending on the flow-path shape, flow rate, and flow-path width.

Paper Nr: 41
Title:

An Impedance Spectroscopy ASIC for Low-Frequency Characterization of Biological Samples

Authors:

Juan J. Montero-Rodríguez, Edgar Eduardo Salazar-Flórez, Paola Vega-Castillo, Jakob M. Tomasik, Wjatscheslaw Galjan, Kristian M. Hafkemeyer and Wolfgang Krautschneider

Abstract: This paper describes the design and testing of an ASIC for impedance spectroscopy of biological samples at frequencies up to 40 kHz. The circuit is designed in the 350 nm AMS H35B4 technology and enables the measurement of impedances in the range of 10 kW up to 28 MW. The design features a digital oscillator and a current-to-voltage converter. The ASIC is used to monitor the growth of yeast cell cultures and porcine chondrocytes, in real-time, using a standard 384-well plate and copper electrodes.

Paper Nr: 43
Title:

Magnetic Resonance Imaging at 7 Tesla with Dedicated Radiofrequency Coils - Application to Cervical Cord and Knee

Authors:

Maria Evelina Fantacci, Laura Biagi, Mirco Cosottini, Mauro Costagli, Massimo Marletta, Alessandra Retico, Riccardo Stara, Mark Symms, Gianluigi Tiberi, Virna Zampa and Michela Tosetti

Abstract: Magnetic Resonance (MR) Imaging is a valuable tool in the diagnosis and monitoring of various musculoskeletal pathologies. New Ultra-High Field (UHF) 7 T MRI systems, with their enhanced Signal-to-Noise Ratio, may offer increased image quality in terms of spatial resolution and/or shorter scanning time compared to lower field systems. However, these benefits can be difficult to obtain because of increased radio-frequency (RF) inhomogeneity, increased Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) and the relative lack of specialized and commercially available RF coils compared to lower field systems. This study reports the feasibility of imaging in bones and cartilages at UHF with a 7 T MR scanner available at the IMAGO7 Foundation (Pisa, Italy). Dedicated radio-frequency coils for proton imaging have been designed, developed, optimized for different anatomical regions and validated in vivo, and are now ready for clinical research studies. The performance of the RF coil prototypes in targeting different anatomical regions are also demonstrated, obtaining images of the neck (the cervical cord) and of the knee (trabecular bone and cartilages).

Paper Nr: 48
Title:

Vertebral Metrics - Application of a Non-invasive System to Analyse Vertebrae Position using Two Seating Platforms

Authors:

Ana Teresa Gabriel, Cláudia Quaresma, Mário Forjaz Secca and Pedro Vieira

Abstract: The study of the biomechanical changes in the spinal column is particularly important in modern society since they are considered the main responsible for back pain. Vertebral Metrics is an instrument that aims the global evaluation of the spinal column. Noninvasively and semi-automatically, this image processing based system allows the identification of X, Y and Z position of each spinal process on standing position. The analysis of vertebraes position using two different seating platforms through the application of Vertebral Metrics is the aim of this work. Along the paper the main stages concerning to the study will be described. Nine volunteers were recruited and an ergonomic chair and a bench were used to perform the study. Results show that differences in vertebrae position are not relevant when sitting in the ergonomic sit or in the lab. Also, spinal curvatures as well as lateral deviations of the spine were properly represented from data collected with Vertebral Metrics. The study proved that Vertebral Metrics has a huge potential to perform the analysis of the spinal curvatures.

Paper Nr: 49
Title:

Cells Microenvironment Engineering - Multiphoton Absorption for Muscle Regeneration Optimization

Authors:

V. Errico, R. Molinaro, C. Gargioli, F. Ferranti, M. Dinescu, S. Cannata, G. Saggio, S. Rufini and A. Desideri

Abstract: The membrane-substrate interactions have a topological valence and represent a level of information exchange between the cell and the extra-cellular matrix and/or between cells. The interactions can vary with boundary conditions and can be altered by varying the chemical and/or physical properties of the substrate. The alteration can presumably result in differentiation or specialization of the cells, but this fundamental aspect must still be fully understood. In such a frame, we investigated the levels of transcriptional coactivators YAP/TAZ throughout C2C12 differentiation on standard two-dimensional substrates and on polyethylene glycol-fibrinogen three-dimensional microenvironment. In detail, we observed that the use of a three-dimensional matrix permits an earlier differentiation in muscular cells when compared to standard bidimensional substrates. On such a basis, we want to investigate the modulation of a more regular threedimensional pattern on cells proliferation response and we propose a matrix, generable with multiphoton absorption, with regular aligned channels in order to overcome the current limitation in muscle regeneration techniques, so a possible tool to improve the myofibers formation and alignment.

Paper Nr: 50
Title:

Multiple Source Phototherapy in Breast Cancer: A Viability Study

Authors:

A. Lopes, A. Gabriel, J. Machado, P. Ribeiro, R. Gomes, João M. P. Coelho, C. O. Silva, C. P. Reis, J. P. Santos and P. Vieira

Abstract: Radiation therapy is one of many common treatments applied to breast cancer. Most usual radiation sources applied are ionizing radiation, such as g-rays and X-rays, and non-ionizing radiation such as ultraviolet radiation. The possibility of using near infrared light to photoactivate a drug inside an 8 cm diameter biological object is discussed in this work via Monte Carlo simulations. Two simulation setups performed in the Geant4/GAMOS framework are presented in order to study the viability of photoactivating a drug by using several near infrared light sources. The overall objective of this technique is to minimize energy concentrated at objects surface and maximize it in a predefined region of interest. Results show an increase energy absorption in the desired region of interest inside a 8 cm object, when a higher absorption particle is present. With the use of multiple sources it is possible to photoactivate the drug while causing minimal damage to the surface of the radiated object.

Paper Nr: 53
Title:

Wireless Energy and Data Transmission ASIC for Blood Pressure Measurement in an Aneurysm Implant

Authors:

Rajeev Ranjan, Bibin John, Dipal Gosh, Soumil Kumar, Lait Abu Saleh, Dietmar Schroeder and Wolfgang H. Krautschneider

Abstract: Aneurysm implant requires multiple pressure sensors integrated into the stent graft for recording pressure profile inside an aneurysm sac. This paper details the design of an ASIC which receives power wirelessly using inductive coupling, fetches pressure data from a seperate chip and transmits data wirelessly. Besides, the ASIC extends the functionality of the external pressure measurement chip to support up to four pressure sensors by using an analog multiplexer. Error detection and forward error correction are implemented to improve data integrity for wireless data transmission. The design has been implemented and tested in 350 nm CMOS technology.

Paper Nr: 60
Title:

Use of Electrical Stimulation of the Posterior Tibial Nerve in Patients with Bladder Hyperactivity as a Substitute for Pharmacological Therapy based on Solifenacin Succinate and Oxybutynin Hyloridrate

Authors:

Fabiana Bianchi Perez, José Natal de Souza, Nathalia Cristina Rosa, Cristiano Jacques Miosso and Adson Ferreira da Rocha

Abstract: In a previous paper, we proposed a technique for the therapeutic use of Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation (TENS) of the posterior tibial nerve. The goal was to treat patients with signs of urinary incontinence (UI) due to detrusor overactivity (DO). We now conduct a comparison between our proposed TENS technique and the most commonly used treatment against DO, namely the pharmacological therapy based on solifenacin succinate and oxybutynin hydrochloride. Our goal is to show that the TENS of the posterior tibial nerve treats UI associated with DO, as well or better than the pharmacological treatment, but without the adverse side effects of the drugs (the so-called cholinergic syndrome). Method: we applied the proposed posterior tibial nerve TENS in 21 patients, including the TENS Burst anaesthetic current. We treated each patient in 10 sessions, 2 times per week, for 20 minutes each session. Each patient could control the current intensity, in order to keep it at comfortable levels, and in order to still be able to move the halux, thus simulating the Babinski reflex. Results: we observed that with the proposed TENS approach and with the removal of the pharmacological treatment, the cholinergic syndrome symptoms disappeared after 3 days without drugs, whereas we attained the modulation of the non-inhibited detrusor contractions. Conclusion: this research provides evidence of the proposed TENS technique’s efficiency in eliminating the effects of the hyperactive bladder, while avoiding the symptoms of cholinergic syndrome associated to the more common pharmacological treatment. The statistical tests showed that the reductions of DO symptoms and of the cholinergic syndrome were significantly improved over the pharmacological treatment (p < 0.01). This improves patients’ life quality by reducing or eliminating the social discomfort and hygiene problems associated to UI while avoiding the cholinergic syndrome.

Paper Nr: 61
Title:

Computational Investigation of Periodic Flow Structure in a Small a Small-scale Fluidic Feedback Oscillator for Flow Measurement

Authors:

T. Chekifi, B. Dennai and R. Khelfaoui

Abstract: The fluidic oscillator is an interesting device developed for passive flow measurement, flow separation and flow control applications. These patented microstructures can produce a high oscillating jet frequency with high flow velocity. Moreover, fluidic oscillators have no moving parts. Commercial CFD code FLUENT was used to perform analysis of flows in microfluidic oscillator, Numerical simulations were carried out for different flow conditions, where water and air were used as working fluids. The oscillation frequencies were identified by the discrete fast Fourier transform method (FFT). Furthermore a low-pressure vortex of fluid flow in the oscillating chamber was observed between the jet stream and the attachment wall. The effect of the operating pressure and the oscillating chamber shape on the microfluidic oscillator performance is investigated. The velocity fluctuations of the feedback flows through the two feedback channels and the output were determined quantitatively. In addition, the behaviour of the low-pressure vortex in both models is analyzed. Comparison of our numerical simulations with available previous work showed reasonably and good agreement, which demonstrate the accuracy of our models.

Posters
Paper Nr: 8
Title:

Nerites - Underwater Monitoring System of Diver’s Respiration and Regulator Performance using Intermediate Pressure Signal

Authors:

Corentin Altepe, S. Murat Egi, Tamer Ozyigit and Paola Pierleoni

Abstract: This study is about a system for monitoring the breathing cycles of divers and the functioning of regulators underwater. It warns the diver and other surrounding divers in case of long time cessation of respiration or if the regulator’s intermediate pressure is out of predefined limits, enabling immediate intervention to regulator and breathing problems. The system is equipped with two pressure sensors and a microprocessor. It can be quickly mounted on the scuba diver’s equipment to sense distortions in the intermediate pressure and to sense the depth while underwater. Generally all data, including dive profile, are logged and transferable to PC for post-dive analysis. The low and high level alarms enable immediate intervention in case of breathing or regulator problems. Major benefits of the system are rapid detection of respiration and regulator problems and ease of locating an unconscious or deceased diver. Additionally, this system aims at contributing to decompression illness research and at helping regulator manufacturers with the data it will collect while underwater. While this study focuses on the hardware development of the system, breathing detection algorithms are currently being studied and optimized off-line using data collected by the system.

Paper Nr: 11
Title:

Substantiation of the Required World Model Configuration for Autonomous Mobile Medical Service Robots

Authors:

Dmitry Rogatkin, Liudmila Lapaeva and Denis Lapitan

Abstract: Development of smart mobile service medical robots is the actual and interesting problem in the modern biomedical instrumentation. This study is aimed at development of the theoretical basis of the modern medical robotics, in particular, of the theory of autonomous mobile service medical robots. Based on the expert analysis of typical scenarios of behaviour of service medical robots in clinics, the necessity of development of reasoning-based robots with built-in world model was substantiated. It was shown, that the development of the world model should be the key start point of all the process of development and design of such robots. General technical requirements for the robot’s world model, for its composition and functionality, were formulated. It was shown also, that the world model of such robots must maintain a database of precedents of various events and must work taking into account both embedded instincts of the robots and general rules of the World.

Paper Nr: 16
Title:

In Vivo Experimental Detection of Inflammatory Process in Tissues by Fluorescence Spectroscopy

Authors:

Irina Guseva, Dmitriy Rogatkin, Polina Kulikova and Dmitriy Kulikov

Abstract: Laser fluorescence spectroscopy (LFS) is widely used in medicine. Today, oncology and oncosurgery are considered as the most promising fields of its application. It is known that cancerous tissues are able to accumulate different porphyrins, both endogenous and exogenous, in enhanced amount due to increased metabolism in cancerous cells. So, LFS can be used in vivo for detection of malignant tumours as well as for real-time intraoperative imaging or diagnostics at a photodynamic therapy. One of the reason of the enhanced accumulation of porphyrins in tissues is a chronic hypoxia. Therefore, it was hypothesized, that LFS could also be used for diagnosis of local inflammation in tissues. Recently, some indirect data confirming the hypothesis was obtained when observed inflammation due to invasion of external substances into tissues. This study proves the hypothesis in a direct experiment with animals and laboratory tests. Enhanced fluorescence intensity of the exogenous photosensitizer was found in inflamed tissues. The direct association between intensity of the fluorescence, histological characteristics and blood test results was shown. It was found that the registered fluorescence signal correlates with neutrophil counts in blood of tested animals. It proves that LFS could be an effective tool for registration of local inflammation.

Paper Nr: 19
Title:

An Overset Mesh Approach for Valve Closure: An LVAD Application

Authors:

Mohammed G. Al-Azawy, A. Turan and A. Revell

Abstract: A comprehensive Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation of transient, non-Newtonian, and turbulent blood flow through a positive displacement pump, left ventricular assist device (LVAD), is executed. Non-Newtonian blood flow is conducted to investigate the flow through a pulsatile pump LVAD by using common blood viscosity model: Carreau. The numerical results of non-Newtonian fluid with a turbulence model, Elliptic Blending Reynolds Stress Model (EB-RSM) are presented. The computational domain that has been selected is a pulsatile pump, which includes valves and a moving pusher plate. An overset mesh zero gap technique was employed to capture the cyclic motion of pusher plate and valves rotation to mimic the scenario of a natural heart. The use of this technique to rotate the valves and ensure full valve closure presented a good agreement results with the experimental data.

Paper Nr: 32
Title:

Chemically Modified NiO Gas Sensor for Environmental Monitoring

Authors:

Yun Jin Jeong, Chandran Balamurugan and Dong Weon Lee

Abstract: In this work, we report semiconducting nanocrystalline NiO and Pd-doped NiO sensor with high sensitivity and excellent selectivity for H2S gas. These nanomaterials were synthesized by the solution based technique. Related structural and electrical properties of doped and pure NiO thick films were studied used to XRD, XPS, SEM, EDX, BET/BJH and impedance technique. The gas sensing characteristics of pure NiO and Pd-doped NiO were compared using a homemade gas sensing measurement system. The sensitivity, operating temperature, and response/recovery time were systematically investigated based on the change in electrical resistance of the materials in the presence of reduced gas (H2S, CO, LPG and ethanol) environment. Experimental results confirmed that gas sensitivity was enhanced by doping different concentration of Pd in NiO thick films. The 5 wt% Pd doped NiO thick film sensor showed a maximum response to 20 ppm H2S (93%) at an operating temperature of 60 °C.

Paper Nr: 36
Title:

Scalable Distributed Sensor Network for Contact-less Gait Analysis - A Marker-less, Sensor-based System for Steering Rehabilitation Measures

Authors:

Heinz-Josef Eikerling, Michael Uelschen and Florian Lutterbeck

Abstract: We describe the steps taken to evolve a system which enables gait analysis of persons recovering from illnesses affecting gait. The starting point is a centralized system which is turned into a fully distributed environment. The upgraded system is evaluated in terms of accuracy of the generated data by comparing it with the initial system and a marker-based reference system. Elementary gait metrics are used for these comparisons. Regarding the reference system the deviation (hence error) was found to be below 2%.

Paper Nr: 39
Title:

A Targeting Self-breakable Agent for Increased Efficacy of Chemotherapeutic Drugs against Caco2 Cells

Authors:

Ming-Hsien Tsai, Ming-Jium Shieh and Cheng-Liang Peng

Abstract: Many types of nano-sized anti-cancer agents that could increase efficacy of chemotherapeutic drugs have been created and developed in colon cancer treatment over years. Moreover, with the intention of achieving the ideal chemotherapeutic efficacy, nano-sized anti-cancer agents were further designed to have specific functions, efficiently killing colon cancer cells. Our research team focused on two important functions in designing nano-sized agents, controlled drug release and targeting functions. Thus, targeting functional micelles which entrapped chemotherapeutic drug, 7-ethyl-10-hydroxy-camptothecin (SN38) were designed in nano-size and possessed disulfide bonds in this study. In particular, Self-Breakable SN38-loaded micelles (SN/38 micelles), Non-Breakable micelles SN38-loaded (NB/38 micelles) and Folate-targeting Self- Breakable SN38-loaded micelles (FSB/38 micelles) were prepared and tested to the designed agents. The results showed that the folate-decorated functional micelles with disulfide bonds could be an effective chemotherapeutic agent for colon cancer treatment.

Paper Nr: 52
Title:

Energy Minimization during Transcutaneous Electrical Stimulation by Charge Efficient Stimulation Pulses - Benefits of using Short Duration and High Amplitude Stimulation Pulses

Authors:

Jan C. Loitz, Aljoscha Reinert, Nils Remer, Dietmar Schroeder and Wolfgang H. Krautschneider

Abstract: In transcutaneous electrical stimulation motor axons are activated by externally applied electrical pulses. More efficient stimulation pulses could lead to less stress for the patient and to prolonged battery lifetime of the stimulation device. In this study a minimization problem was solved to find charge efficient stimulation pulses, which could potentially reduce the necessary energy provided by the stimulator. The findings of the minimization problem as well as simulations with an active axon model lead to the conclusion that short duration, high amplitude pulses are favorable and that the choice of the correct stimulation amplitude and pulse duration is more important than using the most efficient pulse shape.

Paper Nr: 56
Title:

Integrated 16-Channel Neural Recording Circuit with SPI Interface and Error Correction Code in 130Nm CMOS Technology

Authors:

Andreas Bahr, Lait Abu Saleh, Dietmar Schroeder and Wolfgang Krautschneider

Abstract: In the research of neural diseases like epilepsy and schizophrenia genetic mouse models play a very important role. Dysfunctions during early brain development might cause these diseases. The analysis of the brain signals is the key to understand this process and develop treatments. To enable the acquisition of brain signals from neonatal mice, an integrated circuit for neural recording is presented. It is minimized for low area consumption and can be placed in a miniaturized system on the head of the mouse. It is intended to acquire the local field and action potentials from the brain. 16 analog input channels are implemented. The biomedical signals are amplified with analog pre-amplifiers. Two parallel structures of 8:1 multiplexer, post-amplifier and ADC are implemented to digitize the signals. The post-amplifier has programmable gain and high driving capability. The ADC is implemented as a 10 bit SAR ADC. Digital SPI interfacing is used to reduce the number of transmission lines. Reed Solomon Error Correction Coding has been implemented to enable error correction. The mixed-signal integrated circuit has been successfully implemented in a 130 nm CMOS technology. It is optimized for low area consumption; the channel density is approximately 10 channels/mm².

Paper Nr: 58
Title:

Usability of Passive Models for Energy Minimization of Transcutaneous Electrical Stimulation - Possibilities and Shortcomings of Analytical Solutions of Passive Models and Possible Improvements

Authors:

Aljoscha Reinert, Jan C. Loitz, Nils Remer, Dietmar Schroeder and Wolfgang H. Krautschneider

Abstract: Transcutaneous electrical stimulation is a more and more used rehabilitation technique for patients suffering from spinal cord injury or stroke. The commonly used pulse shape is the biphasic rectangular pulse, which leads to the question whether another, more efficient pulse shape exists that consumes less energy. In this study a passive model for electrical stimulation was develepod and an analytical analysis was performed. The resulting energy optimal pulse shape was then compared to the results of an active model. To improve the accuracy of the passive model, a simple ionic current correction was introduced, which leads to comparable results of an active model. Concluding it can be said that passive models are a good approach to give notions of some effects, but have to be extended to fit reality.