BIODEVICES 2019 Abstracts


Full Papers
Paper Nr: 4
Title:

DNA Detection Method based on the Microbead Velocity under Traveling Wave Dielectrophoresis

Authors:

Zhenhao Ding, Michihiko Nakano and Junya Suehiro

Abstract: Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a highly specific and sensitive detection method for bacterial and viral infections by amplifying the specific regions of DNA or RNA via enzymatic reaction. The authors have developed a rapid DNA detection method based on the dielectrophoresis (DEP) characteristic of DNA labeled microbeads for the rapid detection of the DNA that amplified by PCR. This method is based on the change of the Clausius-Mossotti (CM) factor K of DEP when DNA is attached onto microbeads. In former studies, we developed a new DNA detection method based on the change of the real part of K (Re[K]). However, this method requires a large amount of DNA attaching to a microbead to alter the microbead DEP behaviour for DNA detection. In this study, we focus on the imaginary part of K (Im[K]), which theoretically will change more dramatically than Re[K] when DNA is attached onto the microbeads. Since the traveling wave dielectrophoresis behaviour is based on the Im[K], we propose a new method for DNA detection based on the traveling wave dielectrophoresis (twDEP) of microbeads.

Paper Nr: 16
Title:

A New Rehabilitation Device for Balance Impaired Individuals

Authors:

Wiktor Sieklicki, Robert Barański, Szymon Grocholski, Patrycja Matejek, Mateusz Dyrda and Konrad Klepacki

Abstract: In the paper authors present a device designed to improve the rehabilitation process of people with balance impairment. The discussed device (JStep) utilizes a commercially available static standing frame (stander) modified in order to fit force sensing units under the feet and in the pillows around the hips of a patient. While executing rehabilitation tasks, the patient may compensate his balance deficiency by leaning on the pillows around his hips. Information about weight distribution between left and right leg together with the information about the force applied to the pillows supporting the patient's body is further presented on a display in front of the patient. Such a setup allows physicians to work with the patient while having direct information about compensation necessary for completing a task or gives the patient a visual biofeedback about how well he is doing the exercise. The system is based on an ATmega controller, load cells and analogue amplifiers. In this framework a case study is presented of a 16 y.o. patient with Cerebral Palsy affecting his cerebellum, labelled as ataxic Cerebral Palsy. Two exercise scenarios utilizing the proposed device are discussed and results of a 6-week exercise are further presented. They show a decrease in necessary compensation in order to maintain a standing posture as well as a better accuracy in achieving the desired force distribution between right and left leg while standing upright.

Paper Nr: 17
Title:

An Optimized E-nose for Efficient Volatile Sensing and Discrimination

Authors:

Gonçalo Santos, Cláudia Alves, Ana C. Pádua, Susana Palma, Hugo Gamboa and Ana C. Roque

Abstract: Electronic noses (E-noses), are usually composed by an array of sensors with different selectivities towards classes of VOCs (Volatile Organic Compounds). These devices have been applied to a variety of fields, including environmental protection, public safety, food and beverage industries, cosmetics, and clinical diagnostics. This work demonstrates that it is possible to classify eleven VOCs from different chemical classes using a single gas sensing biomaterial that changes its optical properties in the presence of VOCs. To accomplish this, an in-house built E-nose, tailor-made for the novel class of gas sensing biomaterials, was improved and combined with powerful machine learning techniques. The device comprises a delivery system, a detection system and a data acquisition and control system. It was designed to be stable, miniaturized and easy-to-handle. The data collected was pre-processed and features and curve fitting parameters were extracted from the original response. A recursive feature selection method was applied to select the best features, and then a Support Vector Machine classifier was implemented to distinguish the eleven distinct VOCs. The results show that the followed methodology allowed the classification of all the VOCs tested with 94.6% (± 0.9%) accuracy.

Paper Nr: 19
Title:

A Wearable Real-time Human Activity Recognition System using Biosensors Integrated into a Knee Bandage

Authors:

Hui Liu and Tanja Schultz

Abstract: This work introduces an innovative wearable real-time Human Activity Recognition (HAR) system. The system processes and decodes various biosignals that are captured from biosensors integrated into a knee bandage. The presented work includes (1) the selection of an appropriate equipment in terms of devices and sensors to capture human activity-related biosignals in real time, (2) the experimental tuning of system parameters which balances recognition accuracy with real-time performance, (3) the intuitive visualization of biosignals as well as n-best recognition results in the graphical user interfaces, and (4) the on-the-air extensions for rapid prototyping of applications. The presented system recognizes seven daily activities: sit, stand, stand up, sit down, walk, turn left and turn right. The amount of activity classes to be recognized can be easily extended by the ”plug-and-play” function. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work which demonstrates a real-time HAR system using biosensors integrated into a knee bandage.

Paper Nr: 20
Title:

Impact of Sensing Film’s Production Method on Classification Accuracy by Electronic Nose

Authors:

Ana C. Pádua, Jonas Gruber, Hugo Gamboa and Ana C. Roque

Abstract: The development of gas sensing materials is relevant in the field of non-invasive biodevices. In this work, we used an electronic nose (E-nose) developed by our research group, which possess versatile and unique sensing materials. These are gels that can be spread over the substrate by Film Coating or Spin Coating. This study aims to evaluate the influence of the sensing film spreading method selected on the classification capabilities of the E-nose. The methodology followed consisted of performing an experiment where the E-nose was exposed to 13 different pure volatile organic compounds. The sensor array had two sensing films produced by Film Coating, and other two produced by Spin Coating. After data collection, a set of features was extracted from the original signal curves, and the best were selected by Recursive Feature Elimination. Then, the classification performance of Multinomial Logistic regression, Decision Tree, and Naíve Bayes was evaluated. The results showed that both spreading methods for sensing film’s production are adequate since the estimated error of classification was inferior to 4 % for all the classification tools applied.

Paper Nr: 27
Title:

Magnetic Three-dimensional Pose Control System for Micro Robots in the Human Head

Authors:

Gaby M. Pantoja, Martín M. Medina and Oscar V. Albán

Abstract: Micro robots are devices that have the ability to revolutionize the area of medicine. These devices work without cables, move easily in aqueous environments, and have the ability to be controlled in different ways, allowing them to access very small places. Currently, three-dimensional electromagnetic actuating systems have been proposed for the movement of micro robots by means of arrangements of Helmholtz and Maxwell coils with various functionalities but with high energy consumption. The present investigation proposes a system of coils of Helmholtz and Maxwell with analysis of the currents used to move the micro robot, complementing with the simulation of movement of the micro robot in the subarachnoid region of the human brain by means of Unity. In this way, it is planned to take a first step to know the design of a real system so that in the future, microrobots can reach difficult areas such as the subarachnoid region.

Paper Nr: 30
Title:

Nonlinear Dynamics Method in the Impedance Signals Analysis of the Eye Blood Flow of Patients with Glaucoma

Authors:

Anna A. Kiseleva, Petr V. Luzhnov, Alexander P. Nikolaev, Elena N. Iomdina and Olga A. Kiseleva

Abstract: The article considers the possibility of analyzing the signals of transpalpebral reophthalmography with the help of the method of nonlinear dynamics. In analyzing the signals, it was considered a method with a reconstruction of the signal attractor. An optimal time delay was chosen for the reconstruction, which allowed us to construct an attractor in the space of selected coordinates. Next, we analyzed the mass centers of the reconstructed attractors, the position of the coordinates allowed us to formulate a decisive rule for comparing and dividing signals into groups.Verification of the results carried out on the model signals. The application of this technique was shown with the help of the examples of signal analysis in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma.

Paper Nr: 32
Title:

Muscle Force Assessment in the Presence of Indeterminate Deficiency

Authors:

Joseph Mizrahi, Etgar Marcus and Avi Wiener

Abstract: Indeterminate deficiency is encountered when a subject puts an artificial limit on his/her muscle abilities, in which case his/her true muscle force cannot be assessed in a straight forward manner. Self-restriction of muscle performance during testing may be unintentional due to lack of motivation, lack of self-confidence or due to fear of pain. It can, however, be intentional resulting from unwillingness to cooperate. The aim of this study was to develop an objective system aimed at directing subjects into generating more intense muscle forces than they aimed, thus leading to their true force potential. The methodology used combines mind distraction techniques and Computer Adaptive Testing (CAT) theory. The first element is aimed at distracting the examinees from restricting their muscle force, or shifting the interval of convenience of their performance. The examined subject is thus directed into generating higher muscle forces than he/she has intended to, thus reaching the highest possible force. Practically, the tested subject is asked to perform tasks of varying intensities, visually presented in subject-unanticipated real-time converted-scale display biofeedback. For the second element of our methodology we made use of the Item Response Theory custom-tailored itemized test, for people with various ability levels. A developed iterative CAT algorithm provided, individually for each subject, rapid convergence to the highest force level possible. The results of this study bear potential significance in two major areas: Rehabilitation Medicine, by indicating training procedures for unconfident patients and in Occupational Medicine, for the functional evaluation of subjects who exhibit lack of motivation or cooperation.

Paper Nr: 41
Title:

Light Hazard Measurement on an Ophthalmic Instrument

Authors:

David Melo, Pedro Vieira and Filipe Soares

Abstract: When the acquisition of images is performed on human body structures, the safety of the person on which the images are being obtained acquires fundamental importance. This condition gathers even more relevance when the goal of the image acquisition is related with health examination. To ensure that every physician, when imaging human structures is undoubtedly secure that it will not harm or cause any non-tolerable discomfort to the subject undergoing the exam, medical devices have to surpass a set of specific norms depending on the nature of the structure being examined. More specifically related with instruments for eye related diseases diagnostic and treatment, the ISO-15004-2 norm is the currently accepted. As some types of eye exams rely on highly concentrated radiation, its power has to be limited in order to prevent irreversible damage. In this paper, a Light Hazard Measurement for a specific prototype will be addressed, on which the power calculation method for the emitted radiation will be described and the compliance of the limiting norms will be verified. The main conclusion from the work here described is that the prototype can be classified as a Group 1 Ophthalmic Device according to the ISO-15004-2 norm.

Paper Nr: 44
Title:

Cell Deformability Studies for Clinical Diagnostics: Tests with Blood Analogue Fluids using a Drop based Microfluidic Device

Authors:

A. S. Moita, C. Caldeira, F. Jacinto, R. Lima, E. J. Vega and A. N. Moreira

Abstract: The present paper addresses the final tests (concerning the transport section) of a microfluidic device to be used in cancer diagnostics, based on the mechanical properties of the cells and particularly on deformability. Following the previous work, which established the materials to be used, according to the wetting properties and their influence on the dynamic response of the droplets (which are electrostatically actuated) this paper presents the final simulations to optimize the thickness and material of the dielectric coating, always as a function of the dynamic response of the droplets. Then, to avoid contamination issues, a number of analogue fluids are proposed, in a new approach, which are characterized and tested in the second part of the work. Regarding the characterization of these new fluids, preliminary results suggest a great potential of a surfactant solution to be used as an analogue. The addition of the surfactant results in the formation of semi-rigid particles with a size distribution and deformation characteristics compatible with those of the biosamples to be studied. The surfactant solution also shows a swift response to electrostatic actuation.

Paper Nr: 51
Title:

Biomolecular Phage Filter for the Detection of a Small Number of Pathogens in Large Volumes of Processing Water

Authors:

Songtao Du, Xu Lu, I-Hsuan Chen, Yuzhe Liu, Shin Horikawa, Tung-Shi Huang and Bryan A. Chin

Abstract: Fresh specialty crop produce such as tomatoes, blueberries, strawberries, sprouts, cantaloupes, lettuce and leafy greens account for more instances of foodborne illness than any other food category. Recent announcements to consumers, by the United States (U.S.) Centers for Disease Control (CDCs), to discard all Romaine lettuce because of bacterial contamination has resulted in hundreds of millions of dollars in losses to growers and processors. Unfortunately, current microbiological testing of samples of specialty crops (whole fruits, leaves of spinach, etc.), as specified by FDA’s Bacteriological Analytical Manual (BAM), requires at least 48 hours to perform the complicated, time-consuming and costly steps of soaking, pre-enrichment, concentration, enrichment, plate count or PCR to detect pathogens on these samples. Further complicating the BAM analyses are the realities that: 1) both PCR and ELISA are unable to distinguish between live and dead cells and 2) only a few samples out of as many as 100,000 fruits, vegetables or leaves of multi-ton batches of produce can be BAM tested. A Non-clogging Biomolecular Phage Filter has been developed to simultaneously capture, concentrate and isolate small numbers of pathogens from large volumes of produce wash water. This phage filter can then be evaluated to screen for live versus dead cells and ID the specific pathogen in minutes. Capture efficiencies of greater than 94% have been demonstrated.

Paper Nr: 52
Title:

Identification for a Large-volume Food-borne Bacteria on a Fully Integrated Portable Centrifugal Disc

Authors:

Hau Van Nguyen, Van D. Nguyen, Eun Y. Lee and Tae S. Seo

Abstract: Herein, we present a fully integrated portable centrifugal microsystem for multiplex detection of food poisoning bacteria with a large volume of sample up to 1 mL. The microsystem consists of a portable rotary genetic analyzer and a fully integrated lab-on-a-disc device. The portable rotary genetic analyzer is equipped with a couple of heating blocks, a motor and a UV-Vis optical detector. The device was designed with two units: a 3D printed solution-loading cartridge and a centrifugal microfluidic disc. All the essential solutions for the LAMP reaction (a sample, a washing, an elution and a LAMP cocktail solution) are stored inside the cartridge, and orderly released into centrifugal microdevice by a rotation program. Each unit of the device was designed with 20 reaction chambers for simultaneously detecting 19 kinds of food poisoning bacteria in one test. To increase the amount of a sample to 1 mL, we incorporated the super absorbent polymer (SAP) in the waste chamber to absorb the sample and washing solution during the device operation. The whole process was automatically conducted from bead-based DNA extraction to isothermal DNA amplification by EBT-mediated LAMP reaction to colorimetric and UV-vis detection of amplicons in 60 min to identify three kinds of bacteria (Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Typhimurium, and Vibrio parahaemolyticus).

Short Papers
Paper Nr: 3
Title:

Load Monitoring for Orthoses with Energy Harvesting Powered Sensor

Authors:

Juan-Mario Gruber and Andreas Stahel

Abstract: A new self-powered sensor with wireless connectivity is presented. The system is powered by piezoelectric energy harvesting from human motion. It can be implemented for example into orthoses, medical walking aids, shoes or prostheses. Force sensors measure the weight bearing on a lower limb. The collected data is processed and transmitted to a smartphone or computer using Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE). On the receiving device, the data is analysed and visualized and can provide information for patients and physicians to support healing processes. Initial tests show that the harvested energy is sufficient for a stable operation of the embedded system.

Paper Nr: 8
Title:

Blood-to-blood Immunological Compatibility Test: A Possibility with Fluorescent Immuno-Biochips

Authors:

K. Charrière, A. Guitton, V. Ratié, L. Sighi-Dumoulin, V. Bourcier, P. Morel, L. Pazart and B. Wacogne

Abstract: One of the most feared transfusion accident is the haemolytic reaction. A majority of countries imposes a compatibility test before each transfusion, at the patient’s bedside or in laboratory. Regardless of the test performed, it does not prevent human errors and nothing ensures an “error free” procedure. Complete crossmatch is the only test ensuring a complete blood compatibility between donors and patients. It relies on the direct or indirect detection of agglutinations which occur when the patient’s plasma is mixed with the red cells to be transfused. It requires extracting plasma. The work described here will help avoid all the immunologic incompatibilities by the use of a compatibility test without plasma extraction. It relies on an immuno-biochip technology in a microfluidic environment with fluorescence detection. This position paper presents preliminary results obtained with artificial samples together with comments on the state of industrial competition and the new device market positioning.

Paper Nr: 14
Title:

A Comparison of Blood Pressure in a Pulsatile Flow and LVAD Flow with Imposed Pulsatility using Wave Propagation Model

Authors:

S. Krishna, K. R. Balakrishnan and R. K. Kumar

Abstract: Mathematical modeling of the cardiovascular system is useful in understanding its physiological and pathological processes. Pressure and flow waves carry valuable information regarding the physical properties of the system, which is helpful in diagnosis and treatment of disease. Pulse wave propagation is studied extensively using one-dimensional blood flow models. On the other hand, Left Ventricular Assist Devices (LVAD) are constant flow devices with no pulse and the patients are prone to stroke. In this paper we focus on modelling the LVAD flow along with pulsatile flow using the one dimensional blood flow model. The effect of introducing pulsatility to LVAD and its influence on the mean pressure is then studied. The model is then used to simulate absence of one or more arteries in cerebral circulation and incision of LVAD at different locations in arterial tree. Simulation results show that mean blood pressure in LVAD is higher compared to pulsatile flow, which agrees with the results reported in literature. Also, introduction of pulse to LVAD has lowered the mean blood pressure, which is desired and can reduce LVAD related complications. One dimensional models can serve as a valuable noninvasive diagnostic tool for surgical planning and simulating pathology.

Paper Nr: 15
Title:

Heterogeneous Earliest Finish Time based Scheduling for Digital Microfluidic Biochips

Authors:

Rajesh Kolluri, J. P. Kumar and Sumanta Pyne

Abstract: One of the recent emerging technology in biochemical analysis field is Lab-on-chip (LOC) technology which uses digital microfluidics property to manipulate droplets discretely. LOC efficiently carries out all biochemical operations we do in traditional laboratories on a single reconfigurable chip called as Digital Microfluidic Biochip (DMFB). DMFBs helps to achieve parallelism and miniaturization compared to traditional laboratory methods in terms of samples and equipment used. One of the important problem in DMFB synthesis is scheduling. We present a simple method called as Heterogeneous Earliest Finish Time for digital microfluidics (DMHEFT) for scheduling DMFB. It is a greedy heuristic based list scheduling. HEFT is previously used for task scheduling where multiple heterogeneous processors are available for solving inter-dependent tasks depicted as DAG. In this paper, it is applied to Microfluidic biochips. DMHEFT uses Upward rank value to prioritize the tasks or operations and earliest finish time to assign tasks to different modules like mixers, heaters and detectors etc. Simulation results show that it produces better assay lengths and run time compared to existing algorithms.

Paper Nr: 23
Title:

Simulation Studies for Non Invasive Classification of Ischemic and Hemorrhagic Stroke using Near Infrared Spectroscopy

Authors:

Dalchand Ahirwar, Kshitij Shakya, Aihik Banerjee, Dheeraj Khurana and Shubhajit R. Chowdhury

Abstract: This paper presents an approach to identify and classify the type of stroke, viz ischemic and hemorrhagic conditions. Ischemic stroke is caused by the blood clot and plaque present in the blood vessel. Hemorrhagic stroke, on the other hand, occurs when a rupture happens in the cerebrovascular artery or mid-cerebral artery causing impairments in blood flow and hence the supply of oxygen to the cerebral tissues. The current research analyses the blood flow velocity, the pressure profile of blood clot and plaque, and the condition at which ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke occurs. Simulation studies show the pressure on the blood vessel walls under ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke conditions and also that under nominal blood flow velocity the hemorrhage does not occur, but when the velocity is sufficient enough to increase the pressure on the wall, rupture of the mid-cerebral artery takes place. The simulation assumes the blood flow to be laminar, non-Newtonian, viscous, incompressible, and the arterial wall as elastic. Using the simulation model, an approach to classifying ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke using near infrared spectroscopy has been proposed in the paper.

Paper Nr: 25
Title:

3D Microfluidic Perfusion Cell Culture System for Concentration Gradient and Air Bubble Trapping Functions

Authors:

Dong H. Park, Xuan D. Nguyen, Moon J. Kim, Karl Morten and Jeung S. Go

Abstract: This paper presents a cell culture well-plate for three dimensional perfusion cell cultures. A concentration gradient generator, a microchannel system, is embedded in the plate bottom for not only the perfusion culture but transfer of reagents with linear concentration gradient to 4 wells of the plate. The concentration uniformity of gradient generated is guaranteed by adding microchannel mixers at the end of generator. Sudden expansion reservoirs, air bubble traps, make perfusion cell cultures plate long-term culture without interruption of perfusion flow caused by injection of air bubbles in the microchannels. The performance of the developed 3D microfluidic perfusion cell culture system is examined experimentally and compared with analytical results. Then, it is applied to test the cytotoxicity of cells infected with Ewing’s sarcoma. Cell death is observed for different concentrations of H2O2. Finally, the 3D perfusion cell culture well-plate is presented with not only similar structure to conventional 3×4 well-plate but expansion of concentration range from a 4 fold of dilution in 4 wells to a 100 fold of dilution in 7 wells.

Paper Nr: 26
Title:

Techniques for Usability Risk Assessment during Medical Device Design

Authors:

Alice Ravizza, Andres D. Lantada, Luis B. Sánchez, Federico Sternini and Cristina Bignardi

Abstract: Human errors during the use of medical devices, due to pitfalls in the design of the user interface, may lead to substantial risk to users and to patients. There are multiple techniques for the identification and for the assessment of user related risks, that may be chosen according to the step of the design (preliminary feasibility studies, minimum viable product assessment, verification and validation) and considering cognitive processes and information processing mechanisms of users, which may lead to errors. Some techniques are more adequate for a quick-and-dirty approach, during early stages of design: these include expert reviews, discussions among focus groups, standard reviews and heuristic analyses. Other techniques are adequate for a more detailed and systematic analysis of risk, in more advanced design stages, with a failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA) approach, including time-and-motion studies and task analyses. Lastly, user tests with the help of rapid prototypes, perhaps involving alternative embodiments to be studied, are very adequate for verification and validation of the interface. Usability analysis techniques should be part of the toolbox of a biomedical engineer and they should be carefully chosen. Each technique, regardless the step it is used, should allow the designers to define a precise level of risk in terms of probability, severity. Moreover, usability risk minimisation measures shall be measurable and able to be quantified, as well as the impact of risk mitigation strategies. For this reason, usability risk minimisation measures should be classified according to regulatory requirements as “safe by design”; “alarms and protections” and “information for safe use”. Each class of risk minimisation measure should be then given a measurable risk reduction score, so that the risk assessment can be completed in a repeatable and regulatory compliant way.

Paper Nr: 28
Title:

Design of Microstructure for Stimulating Mechanical Torque to Cells

Authors:

Hiroaki Nagase and Eiji Iwase

Abstract: In this study, we proposed the design for microstructure which can apply bending or torsion stimulus to cell using an external magnetic field. First, we defined “ideal bending stimulus” and “ideal torsion stimulus” for cell on a microstructure. In order to apply ideal bending or torsion stimulus to cells, the thickness of the microstructure of cell-culturing region is important. We designed and microfabricated the microstructure which consists of a thin silicon beam as cell-culturing region and a ferromagnetic material, nickel film for magneto-active structure. Then, fabricated microstructures actuated by external magnetic field and deformation of the microstructures was measured. From the results of the measurements, we calculated radius of curvature and angle of torsion respectively and we confirmed the platform almost actuated in theory. Our design of the platform can contribute to applying new kinds of mechanical stimuli to cultured cells.

Paper Nr: 29
Title:

Development of Integrated Electrochemical–Quartz Crystal Microbalance Biosensor Arrays: Towards Ultrasensitive, Multiplexed and Rapid Point-of-Care Dengue Detection

Authors:

Ahmad A. Zainuddin, Anis N. Nordin, Mohd M. Asri, Rosminazuin A. Rahim, Cyril Guines, Matthieu Chatras, Arnaud Pothier and Wing C. Mak

Abstract: Dengue is an infectious mosquito-borne viral disease that affects approximately 50 million people annually worldwide and is prevalent mostly in the tropics. Severe cases of dengue can be fatal, making early detection and fast diagnosis crucial towards improving patient care and survival rates. Currently, early detection can be achieved through detection of NS1 protein, using ELISA technique. Unfortunately, ELISA is an expensive method, making it unsuitable as a screening technique, especially in low-resource settings. In this work, we present a prototype device and its early validation studies, of an integrated electrochemical and mass-sensor for dengue NS1 antigen. The sensor is connected to open source mass-sensing software and hardware, OpenQCM which makes it easily portable. Having dual-measurement capabilities (mass and impedance) increases the sensitivity of the sensor. Preliminary studies suggest that the prototype could achieve ultralow limit of detection as low as 10 ng mL-1, dual-sensing cross-validation capability, portable size, sample-to-analysis time of less than 30 minutes, and parallelization of multiple assays. This work could lead to early and accurate dengue detection in routine point-of-care settings.

Paper Nr: 35
Title:

Rehabvisual: Validation of an Application to Stimulate Visuomotor Skills in Preterm Babies with Developmental Alterations

Authors:

Catarina Santos, Ana Ferreira, Cláudia Quaresma and Carla Quintão

Abstract: The methods of evaluation and intervention related to the visuomotor skills, for children under the age of 18 months with neurological dysfunctions are not systematic and individualized. Hence, the RehabVisual platform was developed. The aim of this article is to present the usability tests applied to the platform validation, as well as describing the application of the platform in the therapy sessions of a baby with a clinical diagnosis of prematurity. The study concludes that the application of the platform allows the treatment to be more individualized and specific to the baby needs through a common method to all service. Through usability tests, it was possible to ascertain that at the level of occupational therapy, this is a useful tool adapted to the needs of its users.

Paper Nr: 45
Title:

Design and Strength Analysis of Laparoscopical Tool for Electrocoagulation Surgery

Authors:

Martin Schmidt, Marek Penhaker, Jan Kubíček, Jan Kráčmar, Milada Hlaváčková, Petr Ihnát and Petr Vávra

Abstract: The goal of this paper was to design a new operating tool for hysteroscopy with better attributes than the currently used tools. The purpose of creating this new tool is to shorten the time of surgery and enable the surgeon to remove larger myomas and polyps. The designed tool may also be used as scissors and is compatible with the currently used hysteroscopes. After the proposed instrument was created it was tested and put through a strength analysis test.

Paper Nr: 46
Title:

GNEUROPATHY: Validation Process at Clinical Environment

Authors:

Claudia Quaresma, Madalena Gomes, Heitor Cardoso, Nuno Ferreira, Ricardo Vigário, Carla Quintão and Micaela Fonseca

Abstract: Spinal cord injuries are one of the most traumatic situations with a major impact on a person's quality of life. This type of injury have a extremely impact in the performance of daily life activities not only due to motor alterations but also due to the appearance of neuropathic pain Throughout the rehabilitation process the evaluation and intervention methodologies are not very systematic and are not personalized. Thus, to bridge this gap, the VR4NeuroPain was developed a technology that associates virtual reality with a glove "GNeuroPathy". The glove "GNeuroPathy" allows the collection of physiological parameters, namely to identify the electrodermic activity (EDA) while the patient carries out activities in an immersive environment. The main objective of this article is to present the validation process of the "GNeuroPathy" in clinical context. "GNeuroPathy" was applied to a group of 17 individuals with incomplete spinal cord injury. The results showed that "GNeuroPathy" is easy to apply and is suitable for comfort and texture. Data were also collected from EDA and it was found that there is a significant difference in signal amplitude in patients with low and high functionality.

Paper Nr: 1
Title:

Retinal Blood Vessels Modeling based on Fuzzy Sobel Edge Detection and Morphological Segmentation

Authors:

Jan Kubicek, Juraj Timkovic, Marek Penhaker, David Oczka, Alice Krestanova, Martin Augustynek and Martin Cerny

Abstract: In the clinical ophthalmology, the retinal blood vessels processing represent a significant issue regarding the clinical diagnosis. A level of the blood vessels curvature may serve as a reliable indicator of the pathological process. For curvature estimation, a precise model of the retinal blood vessels is necessary. In this paper, we propose a method based on the sensitive edge detector utilizing the fuzzy rules and morphological techniques. The fuzzy edge detector is able to even detect edges while suppressing the high frequency image noise in the non-contrast environment where the image spatial characteristics are weak. Consequent morphological operations serve for adjustment of the segmentation procedure to obtain the smooth model which effectively separates the retinal blood vessels from the retinal background. In the final step, we obtain the binary mathematical model of the retinal blood vessels. We have verified the proposed method against the gold standard images. We have applied the proposed solution on the low-contrast retinal data from the RetCam 3 which is standard for Retinopathy of prematurity. Mostly, when using the RetCam 3, the retinal data has lower contrast therefore, the segmentation procedure is supposed to be robust, even in the noisy environment.

Paper Nr: 2
Title:

Design and Implementation of Monitor Tester for Validation of ECG Signals

Authors:

Vladimir Kasik, Marek Penhaker, Jan Kubicek, Martin Cerny, Martin Augustynek, David Oczka and Alice Krestanova

Abstract: The paper deals with a design and consequent realization of a monitor tester for validation of the ECG devices, and patient’s monitors for the ECG measurement. In the paper, we describe the electrical design of the plug-in module, which is intended for a transmission of the digital data from the computer. Data are sent by using the controlling SW connected to the parallel port in the plug-in module. An essential part of the proposed module is the three-channel 12 bit D/A converter AD 7398. This converter is able to simultaneously send data from all the three outputs. The converter output is unipolar in the volts units. For this reason, the transmitted signals are adjusted by using the differential amplifiers in order to convert them to the bipolar. The signal’s amplitudes are decreased to the millivolts level by using the voltage dividers. On the base of this solution, the Einthoven ECG leads may be detected.

Paper Nr: 5
Title:

Noise Attenuation using Genetic Algorithm in CT Image

Authors:

A. A. Saraiva, M. S. de Oliveira, J. M. Sousa, N. F. Ferreira, Antonio Valente and Salviano Soares

Abstract: The techniques of image filtering have undergone an explosive growth in the last years to make new advances and challenges. This is due to the fact, among several other reasons, the increase of the volume of images coming from several sources. Digital images have been used for a variety of purposes, from the storage of souvenirs to accurate medical exams. However, Images may be corrupted due to several factors. The challenge of suppression or noise attenuation has led to the search for improved techniques in order to preserve important characteristics of the image, but, on the other hand, there is no solution available to completely solve the problem, boosting the production of the work proposed here. In this paper proposes a method for noise attenuation in computed tomography images using a hybrid genetic algorithm, the proposed method seeks to optimize the results in the space of solutions composed by a series of techniques of noise filtering. At the end the proposed method is compared statistically with two other competing methods and after the resulting filtered images are shown.

Paper Nr: 6
Title:

Magneto-division of Vesicle: Theory and Possible Experiments

Authors:

Yao-Gen Shu and Zhong-Can Ou-Yang

Abstract: Our theory has revealed the possibility that the vesicle, which is self-assembled by the diamagnetic amphiphilic block-copolymers, can be manipulated into division by external magnetic field. For the case of the constraint of constant surface area, the passive division can successively take place for 10 times in the situation of Δp = −15 mV; and only 4.5% solution that is contained by the original vesicle with a radius of 4 µm can been retained by 512 vesicles that each contains about 2.31×107 nm3. Thus, if the water channels are embedded in the membrane of vesicle, this method can not only concentrate the solution, but also produce a large number of nanoreactors, which is beneficial to yield an ensemble conclusion of chemical reaction in a very short times. Another case of the constraint of constant volume can also be easy realized by enough supply of the diamagnetic amphiphilic block-copolymers in the progress of division. The latter case is also important for reaction statistics because the original solution can be in equal volume divided into hundreds nanoreactors. This nanoreactor can be used to mimic the reaction of some organelles in vitro. We hope experimenters will try them in future experiments.

Paper Nr: 7
Title:

Control of Efficiency and Safety of Medical Ultrasound Equipment in Process of Its Operation

Authors:

Sergey I. Kuznetsov

Abstract: Methods for monitoring the technical condition of ultrasound medical equipment for ultrasound physiotherapy, focused ultrasound radiation, extra corporeal lithotripsy and ultrasound diagnostics during its operation are proposed. The application of the proposed methods will significantly improve the safety of the use of ultrasonic medical equipment, as well as improve the quality and effectiveness of treatment with these devices. Besides, the proposed methods are low cost of their application. The proposed methods for monitoring the technical condition of ultrasound medical equipment can be used in remote medical institutions that do not have the ability to periodically calibrate their medical devices.

Paper Nr: 21
Title:

Motion Capture and MultiBody Simulations to Determine Actuation Requirements for an Assistive Exoskeleton

Authors:

Daniel S. Pina, Joaquim Gabriel and Renato Natal

Abstract: EUROSTAT's projections show that, by 2040, the people aged 65 or more will account to almost one fourth of the population. These statistics raise concerns over the sustainability of the society, so technological solutions have been emerging to prolong the active age of European citizens. One of the main impairments for elders is an increasing difficulty in performing daily lower-limb activities (i.e. walking, climbing stairs) due to Sarcopenia, among other issues. Therefore, the authors are developing an active exoskeleton whose sole purpose is to assist the gait of an elderly person. The proposed system is based on a low-profile design, allowing a smaller frame that allows the device to be worn beneath loose clothing, making it more desirable to wear in public by reducing social awkwardness. This article shows the methodology used to determine the actuation requirements for the exoskeleton. Two subjects performed a number of trials depicting daily life activities in a biomechanics laboratory that acquires motion sensor and force-plate data. Each activity was performed with additional weights to emulate the presence of an exoskeleton. The data was used in a multibody simulation program (OpenSim) to determine the requirements (angular speed, torque) for the actuation system in the exoskeleton.

Paper Nr: 31
Title:

Analysis of Mechanical Properties of Dialysis Sets

Authors:

Klara Fiedorova, Martin Augustynek, Frantisek Fojtik and Milada Hlavackova

Abstract: Dialysis sets are part of the dialysis circuit and are used every day. It is important to find out how the dialysis sets behave under load and whether they retain their typical properties, which are the strength and flexibility. Therefore, the mechanical properties of the dialysis sets are evaluated depending on the selected physical parameters. For this reason, the sets are subject to temperature changes and changes in the pressure of the peristaltic pump occlusion cylinders. To evaluate the mechanical properties of the dialysis sets, the sets were subjected to stress tests and subsequent tests. The results were processed and analysed.

Paper Nr: 33
Title:

Data Acquisition from the Integration of Kinect Quaternions and Myo Armband EMG Sensors to Aid Equinus Foot Treatment

Authors:

Francisco A. Araújo, N. F. Ferreira, Salviano P. Soares, António Valente and Gilson L. S. Junior

Abstract: This paper shows the advantage of using different sensors such the Microsoft Kinect and Myo Armband to acquire movement description of the plantarflexion and dorsiflexion of the foot with the help of the quaternions and the EMG Myo sensor. For the integration of these devices, it was chosen Python to develop the algorithm and create an interface to aid the signal acquisition. This integration, enabling an accurate motion description as well as a scale of EMG signal, allow the possibility of quantifying the treatment of the people with equinus foot.

Paper Nr: 34
Title:

Low Cost and Fast Development of 3D Printed Gloves for 10 Degrees of Freedom Gesture Recognition

Authors:

Antonio Pallotti, Mariachiara Ricci, Giancarlo Orengo and Giovanni Saggio

Abstract: The decreasing cost allows easy access and diffusion of 3D printers even for domestic use in the same way as 2D printers. The present work proposes the development of a sensorial glove in 3D printing, featuring low cost, easy reproduction and replacement. A 3D desktop printer, that was able to extrude different plastic materials, was used. In order to generate the geometric shape that best suited the hand anatomy, the 3D CAD design was based on hand photos from the top and the sagittal section. The design of the glove includes the sensor housings, which are pockets within which the sensor can slide during joint bending. The wiring of 10 flex sensor and the acquisition board designed for a Lycra glove were easily applied to the printed glove without modification. The glove in 3D printing was able to control virtual or mechanical hands, which provides for surgical, military, space and civil applications. The possibility to achieve waterproofing allows the use in applications that require contact with solvents or water. A standard test applied to six healthy subjects demonstrated that the proposed glove achieves performances, in terms of repeatability, reproducibility and reliability, comparable to that of the other literature gloves.

Paper Nr: 38
Title:

Electrodes Device for Impedance Diagnostics of the Blood Flow in the Ophthalmic Artery

Authors:

Petr V. Luzhnov, Anna A. Kiseleva and Elena N. Iomdina

Abstract: The paper presents new electrodes device for diagnostics of the eye blood filling based on the registration of rheographic signals. The methods of bipolar rheoophthalmography and tetrapolar transpalpebral rheoophthalmography are briefly discussed. The elastic tape is presented as electrodes device. All main parameters of new electrodes device are chosen. An electrodes system has been developed for recording the pulse blood filling of main large arteries near eye: ophthalmic artery, internal carotid artery, anterior cerebral artery and middle cerebral artery. The application of this technique was shown in the example. Calculations made in analyzing signals obtained from patients without an ophthalmopathology are presented, which show that eye blood filling in the ophthalmic artery was 30-42 % above, than at research of an eye by a technique transpalpebral rheoophthalmography.

Paper Nr: 43
Title:

ECG Pattern Recognition and Beat Classification using Internet of Things and Hardware Acceleration on ZynQ (SOC) Platform with High Performance Computational PCIe Protocol

Authors:

Vijendra V., Meghana Kulkarni and Rajesh Murgan

Abstract: The ECG signals plays an important vital role in Diagnostics Systems. The Real time Hardware Implementation Provides Accuracy, speed, Beat classification, predictivity and diagnostics of the system Interpretation and classification The ECG Signal extraction from sensor and Processing on the Zynq SoC Platform and Imported on to the cloud in involves three Steps: i) Real time data fetch from the Sensor device ii) Pushing on to the Cloud uproot Using TCP/IP Protocol iii) Cloud IDE Processing Using SDAccel openCL language with Amazon FPGA Image (AFI) on Virtual servers with the help of openCL/C++ libraries, Xilinx SDx Environments and virtual JTAG interfaces on Xilinx Virtex Ultrascale Plus Board(VU9P) low profile PCIe accelerated Board.

Paper Nr: 47
Title:

VMSReport: An Application for Visual Performance and Motor Skills Evaluation

Authors:

Ana I. Ferreira, Cláudia Quaresma and Carla Quintão

Abstract: With the increase of evidence-based practice, the registration and dissemination of the assessment data, became more and more important. In paediatric rehabilitation those procedures are particularly important since they allow for an initial characterization of the clinical situation, to compare results in different assessment moments and to disseminate the evaluation outcomes. However, in several kinds of evaluation, data registration is a complex and slow process. Similarly, the comparison of raw score to standard score can be very time consuming. To minimize that challenge it is important to develop a digital system that makes the registration fast and objective. The main purpose of this paper is to present VMSReport: an application to registrate visuomotor performance data, visual perception, as well as and motor coordination, in children aged 2 years and older. That digital tool allows also to compare results between various moments of assessment and can automatically generate a report for each evaluation. It also builds a database, which facilitates the process of global data analysis and modelling. This tool was developed in a clinical environment, giving clear answers to requests from rehabilitation caregivers. A pilot study, with 10 children, has already been carried out. The VMSReport can now be used.

Paper Nr: 48
Title:

VR4NEUROPAIN: Interactive Rehabilitation System

Authors:

Micaela Fonseca, Heitor Cardoso, Nuno Ferreira, Tiago Loureiro, Inês Gomes and Claudia Quaresma

Abstract: Virtual Reality (VR) has finally found its way to be used in the healthcare industry, covering many different areas such as medical training, marketing, patient education, psychotherapy and physiotherapy, and many others. The need to develop increasingly personalized technology to be used during the rehabilitation process is extremely important. Therefore, the VR4NeuroPain solution aims to cover the unique influence that it obtains from the VR applied to the rehabilitation area, creating unique and virtual spaces where patients with neuropathic pain can be submitted to their therapy sessions, not only in hospitals and clinics, but also at home. The VR4NeuroPain system monitors electrophysiological data in real time, and consists of the following components: Virtual Reality Interface, Plataform and a Glove-“GNeuroPathy”. The main objective of this paper is to describe all the components of VR4NeuroPain solution. The system can be used by physicians, occupational therapists and physiotherapists. VR4Neuropain allows the use of innovative and interactive intervention methodologies.

Paper Nr: 53
Title:

Embedded Textile Sensing System for Pressure Mapping and Monitoring for the Prevention of Pressure Ulcers

Authors:

Susana Pereira, Joana Fonseca, Joana Almeida, Ricardo Carvalho, Pedro Pereira and Ricardo Simoes

Abstract: Despite improvements in medical industry and consequent modernization of the biomedical devices and healthcare, pressure ulcers prevalence remains high particularly in hospitalized patients that present little or no mobility. This kind of skin injury affects the patients’ quality of life and their caregivers, and on the other hand, increases directly or indirectly the healthcare costs. Thus, the monitoring and early identification of the risk factors that lead to the development of pressure ulcers is important to decide what are the appropriate preventive measures. The present work aims to present a new concept of a pressure sensing and monitoring system, able to detect the pressure exerted on the surface. In this case, the system consists of a sensing matrix made from a kind of commercial piezoresistive sensors embedded in a textile substrate. The solution presented can be used together with an actuation system, which will reply in order to allow the pressure relief according to the feedback from the pressure monitoring system.