BIODEVICES 2020 Abstracts


Full Papers
Paper Nr: 2
Title:

Ambient Light Contribution as a Reference for Motion Artefacts Reduction in Photoplethysmography

Authors:

Nicolas De Pinho Ferreira, Claudine Gehin and Bertrand Massot

Abstract: Measuring the heart rate from a convenient location such as the wrist is commonly achieved using photoplethysmography. As a consequence, this method is widely used on commercial wearable devices. Unfortunately, it also highly suffers from motion artefacts superimposed into the cardiac frequency band which generally lead to incorrect heart rate estimation. In this paper we propose a new approach that uses the ambient light contribution as a reference for motion artefacts reduction. Contrarily to accelerometer-based techniques, the proposed method does not require any additional hardware. Moreover, it is especially efficient for reduction of micro-motions that can’t be addressed using conventionally used accelerometry. Using the ambient light signal as a reference in association with adaptive filtering has demonstrated promising results for the reduction of artefacts during both periodic and random motion events.

Paper Nr: 11
Title:

Development of a Continuous Blood Pressure Monitoring System based on Pulse Transit Time and Hemodynamic Covariates

Authors:

Yiming Zhang, Congcong Zhou, Zhongyi Huang and Xuesong Ye

Abstract: There were many studies showing the relation between pulse transit time (PTT) and blood pressure (BP). Besides, hemodynamic covariates may also contribute to BP values. Our previous study has proposed a BP model based on PTT, HR, stiffness index (SIx) and descent time (DT), which has been validated on the Multi-parameter Intelligent Monitoring for Intensive Care (MIMIC) database. In this article, we present a prototype cuff-less monitoring device for non-invasive estimation of BP, which can obtain both electrocardiogram (ECG) and finger plethysmograph (PPG) signals synchronously. The model proposed above has been validated by using ECG and PPG records from 22 healthy subjects with no cardiovascular disease and hypertension, and the error of BP estimation was 0.002±8.544 mmHg for SBP, 0.005±6.690 mmHg for DBP. The reliability of this method in long-term BP monitoring was further verified by studying the data of one individual for 28 days, while the error was 5.204±5.462 mmHg for SBP, 2.714±4.756 mmHg for DBP without calibration. The results show that the model could estimate the BP value within the acceptable error range based on this study, which is extremely close to AAMI's standard (5±8mmHg) and consistent with the cuff-method. The proposed ultra-low power, wearable, time-synchronized prototype monitoring device with an embedded hemodynamic covariate model, can measure SBP and DBP values accurately, which is expected to estimate continuous blood pressure better.

Paper Nr: 15
Title:

Development of Bioinspired Exosuit Actuated with Hydro Muscles and Novel Compact Robotic Flow Control Valve

Authors:

Julia D’Agostino, Ellen Clarrissimeaux, Shannon Moffat, Juan D. Florez-Castillo, Felix Sanchez, Matthew Bowers and Marko Popovic

Abstract: The biologically inspired, wearable, exo-muscular suit has been proposed as a cost-effective, fluidly actuated device for lower-limb physical therapy as well as for assistance with activities of daily living. The exosuit, actuated with 12 biomimetic Hydro Muscles independently controlled with 12 5-way inexpensive, off-the-shelf, on-off solenoid valves, has been designed, manufactured, and tested on a lightweight, biomimetic human skeletal model. The results from testing suggested a necessity for more advanced fluid flow management support system in the form of affordable, lightweight, and compact valves suitable for robotics applications. To meet these metrics and fulfil the requirements of the exosuits fluid flow management system the Compact Robotic Flow Control Valve was designed, manufactured, and tested. The CRFC Valve is lighter, more compact, more controllable, and less expensive than any other similar valve currently on the market.

Paper Nr: 17
Title:

Development of a Smartphone-based Pupillometer for Neuro-ophthalmological Diseases Screening

Authors:

Ana I. Sousa, Rui V. Almeida, Maria Narciso, Fernando S. Crivellaro, Carlos M. Neves, Luís A. Pinto and Pedro Vieira

Abstract: Over the last two decades pupillometry gained a renewed interest, due to the discovery of intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) and their function in pupil light reflex (PLR). This technique is usually used to assess patient’s neurological state and has been researched as a screening tool for neuro-ophthalmological diseases. Several automated pupillometers have been developed, as they allow a quantitative measure of PLR, but most of them are expensive and not portable, which reduces their possibility to be a widespread screening tool. Taking advantage of low price and accessible smartphone technology, a smartphone-based pupillometer was developed in this work. An Android application was developed that allows pupil’s dynamic video recording and its processing for pupil detection. The preliminary tests made to validate the application and the algorithms have shown that the proposed system is a promising tool for a simple, inexpensive and portable pupillometry.

Paper Nr: 23
Title:

MUHD: A Multi-channel Ultrasound Prototype for Remote Heartbeat Detection

Authors:

S. Franceschini, M. Ambrosanio and F. Baselice

Abstract: This paper presents a novel system based on ultrasonic waves that is capable of detecting heartbeat in a contactless fashion. The aim of this work is to design, build and test a prototype that could be effective, simple in its realisation and use and with a low cost of production. The idea is the exploit the displacement of the skin related to cardiac activity, that is possible by using phase difference between a transmitted wave and the waves resulting from the interaction with the subject skin. Nevertheless, this type of procedure is not new in the scientific literature, but in this manuscript the authors contribution mainly consists in the implementation of a multi-channel architecture in order to overcome the well known “null-point” issue. Furthermore, an a-priori regularisation function is used for making the system more robust against noise and artifact. The performance of the prototype has been tested on volunteers and the results are quite close to standard electrocardiography used as reference.

Paper Nr: 37
Title:

Optical Spectroscopy for the Quality Control of ATMP Fabrication: A New Method to Monitor Cell Expansion and to Detect Contaminations

Authors:

B. Wacogne, D. Legrand, C. Pieralli and A. Frelet-Barrand

Abstract: Fabrication of Advanced Therapy Medicinal Products takes currently place in clean and sterile environment and is highly sensitive to any contamination sources. It lasts for several days and is extremely expensive. Quality controls must be performed throughout the process, especially to monitor cell growth during the expansion phase and to detect any contaminations. Regular sampling of the bioreactor’s content is required and subsequent biological investigation are conducted. Major drawbacks are first, a delayed result of the quality control and second, an added risk to induce new contaminations when sampling the content of the bioreactor. Here, we present a real time optical spectroscopy method which can be used in a closed system manner, hence reducing the risk of sampling-related contamination. Analysing the shape of the absorption spectrum of the bioreactor content allows monitoring the cell growth and alerting users in case of contamination. Cell concentrations are measured with an accuracy of ± 5% and contamination can be detected about 3 hours after it occurred. This allows stopping the fabrication as soon as a problem arises leading to several tens of thousand dollars savings. Consequently, the price of these products should be greatly reduced and they may be proposed to more patients.

Paper Nr: 54
Title:

Optical Technology for Ultraviolet Erythema Assessment and Minimal Erythema Dose Determination in Healthy Volunteers

Authors:

Mikhail Makmatov-Rys, Alexey Glazkov, Irina Raznitsyna, Dmitriy Kulikov, Anton Molochkov, Albina Khlebnikova, Ekaterina Kaznacheeva, Alexey Sekirin and Dmitry Rogatkin

Abstract: Currently, in clinical practice, the assessment of ultraviolet (UV) -induced erythema and the determination of the minimal erythema dose (MED) is done visually, which is subjective, inaccurate and associated with high variability of the results. To solve this problem, the application of optical methods seems promising, allowing us to evaluate changes in epidermis and dermis induced by UV exposure. In this study the analysis of endogenous fluorescence and microcirculation characteristics by non-invasive optical methods revealed the relationship between the intensity of endogenous fluorescence of porphyrins and oxygen consumption with a dose of UV radiation. The correlation of the intensity of endogenous fluorescence of the irradiated region normalized to intact tissue with a dose of UV was demonstrated. Therefore, optical diagnostic methods can be a promising tool for non-invasive and quantitative assessment of UV erythema and MED.

Short Papers
Paper Nr: 3
Title:

Force Monitor for Training Manual Skills in the Training of Chiropractors

Authors:

Juan-Mario Gruber, Daniel Mühlemann, Darius Eckhardt and Ibrahim Evren

Abstract: As part of their training, students of Chiropractic Medicine at Zürich are trained to acquire and then improve their manual and manipulative skills, especially their ability to deliver manipulative thrusts with a defined preloading force, an impulse that is delivered with an adequate and reproducible force within a defined time without letting up on the preload-pressure. In order to facilitate this process, objective feedback is paramount. This led to the idea of developing a force-measurement and -monitoring system. The newly developed system consists of a wireless device with a force sensor and an app that is running on standard smartphones. The device records the force applied to the sensor and transmits it via Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) to the app. There it is visualised as a graph and can be evaluated. The system allows us to provide all students with a tool to develop their manual skills, and especially their thrusting technique. As the feedback given by the system can be recorded, progress can be monitored and students can be mentored accurately according to their strengths and weaknesses.

Paper Nr: 8
Title:

Low Temperature Plasma Vacuum Sterilization of Medical Devices by using SterAcidAgent®: Description and Distinctive Characteristics

Authors:

Aleksei E. Zhdanov, Ilya M. Pahomov, Alexey I. Ulybin and Vasilii I. Borisov

Abstract: This article presents a description and distinctive characteristics of the new method of low-temperature sterilization. This method based on using a mixture which is consists of peroxide and organic acid as the sterilized agent (SterAcidAgent®). This study shows that SterAcidAgent® composition has reduced the concentration of hydrogen peroxide, it also has increased bactericidal property of the mixture. We conducted studies of the sterilizing activity of 5-carboxylic low molecular weight acids, investigated the effect of basicity and hydroxyl group in the alpha position on sterilizing activity, and proposed a potential composition for a new line of sterilizing agents.

Paper Nr: 10
Title:

Model Design and System Implementation for the Study of Anti-motion Artifacts Detection in Pulse Wave Monitoring

Authors:

Cong-Cong Zhou, Jing-Yi Wang, Li-Ping Qin and Xue-Song Ye

Abstract: Photoplethysmography (PPG) is a widely used technology for health monitor based on pulse wave measurement by monitoring the blood volume of blood vessels via electro-optic technique. As a kind of non-electrophysiological signal with low amplitude and low frequency, PPG signal may be easily disturbed by motion artifact. This paper proposes a simulation method based on a new reflection model which includes a skin-friendly flexible substrate with a narrow-band full-reflection film plating on it and an embedded system accordingly to study anti-motion artifacts detection in pulse wave monitoring. Monte-Carlo method is presented to simulate the dynamic human skin model and the results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed model. A wrist worn artifact-resistive pulse wave monitoring platform (PWMP) is presented accordingly, the measurement accuracy of pulse rate by the platform is within ±2 beats per minute(bpm) at the range of 30bpm to 240bpm compared with the output of Fluke Index2 (produced by Fluke Corp, USA) in stationary situation. Three kinds of typical postures are performed to verify the proposed model experimentally, results show that the proposed platform has good correlation as compared to PC-60B Medical Pulse Oximeter from Heal Force in the measurement of pulse rate, and the pearson correlation coefficient is 0.953(p<0.01), which reveals that the proposed model has the potential to recover pulse wave signal for pulse rate monitoring.

Paper Nr: 22
Title:

Development of a New EMG Wearable Sensor for Myoelectric Control

Authors:

Clive Seguna, Steve Buhagiar, Jeremy Scerri and Kris Scicluna

Abstract: The application of wireless technology to monitor and record high quality real-time signals is playing an important role in todays̀ world. Various applications such as electromyography and electrocardiography require low-power and low-voltage portable wireless sensors for remote e-health monitoring. The use of such technology allows patients with muscle or heart problems to be monitored from the comfort of their home. Additionally, wireless implantable electromyogram sensing is also integrated in the design of intelligent myoelectric control for powered prostheses. The specifications within such applications constrain the design and development of wearable electromyographic sensors. This work presents a low-cost, portable, wireless non-invasive 8-channel system to monitor and classify electromyographic signals related to hand or finger movement. The proposed system operates at 1.0 V and draws a current of 1 mA in power-down mode. The paper also discusses the hardware and software implementation details and presents various measurement results. This work concludes through feature comparison with other similar technologies in the market.

Paper Nr: 24
Title:

PUF based Implantable Medical Device Security

Authors:

Seonghan Ryu

Abstract: For the resource-constrained device such as Implantable Medical Device(IMD), lightweighting cryptographic methods are required. Physical unclonable function(PUF) is promising hardware based lightweight security solution, which makes use of the inherent process variation in semiconductor fabrication process to generate unique ID. This paper presents an PUF based IMD security with local oscillator(LO) chain composed of VCO and dynamic divider(DDiv), which use self oscillation frequency(SoF) variation characteristics. In the LO chain PUF implementation, the output bits are obtained by comparing the oscillation frequencies of different VCO L banks or dynamic dividers. For the lightweight operability, simple VCO and DDiv-PUF based authentication protocol is also proposed.

Paper Nr: 25
Title:

Novel Fabrication Method of Minute Cylindrical Structures Such as Stents using Lithography, Etching, and Chemical Polishing

Authors:

Toshiyuki Horiuchi, Kaiki Ito, Jun-ya Iwasaki and Hiroshi Kobayashi

Abstract: Applicability of characteristic subtractive processes of stainless-steel pipes to fabrication of minute structures such as stents was demonstrated. Pipes with an outer diameter of 2 mm, a thickness of 50 µm, and a length of 50 mm were coated with a resist PMER N-CA3000 PM in approximately 10 µm thick in 20 mm area at the tip parts of pipes. Next, stent-like mesh patterns composed of 30 rhombuses on an ordinary flat film reticle were replicated on a pipe using a rotary scan-projection exposure system, in which patterns were precisely and homogeneously replicated by synchronously scanning the reticle linearly in perpendicular to the pipe axis and rotating the pipe at a constant speed. All the patterns on the reticle were continuously replicated during the pipe was rotated 360º. After printing the stent-like mesh patterns, the pipes were processed in two steps. In the first step, they were wetly etched in FeCl3 aqueous solution, and in the second step, they were chemically polished in a chemical compound on the market. As a result, a stent-like meshed pipe with mesh widths of 83±6 µm was precisely fabricated.

Paper Nr: 30
Title:

Preliminary Analysis on Cellulose-based Gas Sensor by Means of Aerosol Jet Printing and Photonic Sintering

Authors:

Edoardo Cantù, Matteo Soprani, Andrea Ponzoni, Emilio Sardini and Mauro Serpelloni

Abstract: In this paper, we present a preliminary analysis on the possibility to realize low-cost and eco-friendly cellulose-based gas sensors by means of Aerosol Jet Printing (AJP) and flash lamp annealing (FLA). To the authors knowledge, it is the first time that these two techniques are combined in the realization of such a device. The intrinsic hygroscopic properties are the key element of this device: cellulose contains substantial amount of moisture, adsorbed from the environment, enabling the use of wet chemical methods for sensing without manually adding water to the substrate. The sensors were tested in terms of electrical resistance. The penetration of the carbon ink in the cellulose network was stated thanks to cross-sections captured at the microscope. Once placed in a damp environment, all the sensors showed a comparable behavior settling at an asymptotic value of 3.68 MΩ (relative standard deviation of 8%). In presence of different concentration of NH4OH, the sensors showed a resistance proportional to the amount of analyte present in the working volume, showing 25.6% increase compared to the 0.5 M concentration, while 34.1% compared to the 1M.

Paper Nr: 33
Title:

Optical Non-invasive Flowmetry without Lasers and Coherent Light

Authors:

D. A. Rogatkin, D. G. Lapitan and S. Persheyev

Abstract: Laser Doppler Flowmetry (LDF) and other optical technique to measure a blood flow in tissues noninvasively (in vivo) are well-known today. Meanwhile, in spite of more than 40-year history, they do not have applications in real clinical practice yet. This situation could be a consequence of incorrect understanding of the physical basics of these methods and, accordingly, of insufficient hardware design, software algorithms, as well as of erroneous interpretation of the data measured. The basic theory of physical principles of LDF is the model developed by R.Bonner and R.Nossal in 1980. However, it does not describe many phenomena, low-frequency fluctuations of optical fields due to a variable blood content in a tissue diagnostic volume, for example. In this study, we assumed that the low-frequency part of the power spectrum could provide the same information about the blood flow as the middle- and high-frequency parts provide it in LDF. Moreover, we proposed the use of coherent light source could be avoided in this case. We have developed a much simpler and low-cost LED-based prototype and confirmed our assumptions in experiments. Thus, we proposed a new technique to build simple and economic optical diagnostic tool to evaluate a blood flow in tissues.

Paper Nr: 36
Title:

Architecture and Low Power Management of a Deep-tissue Medical Implant System Powered by Human Body Energy Harvesting

Authors:

Elisabeth Benke, Adrian Fehrle, Johannes Ollech, Simon Schrampfer and Jörg Franke

Abstract: Active mechatronic implants applied to provide therapy of insufficient bodily functions and acquisition of biomedical data are an emerging field in the context of Medicine 4.0. Wireless data transmission between the implant and out-body devices enables patients and health care professionals to access physiological data as well as take technical control and also allows for home monitoring solutions. Due to the limitations associated with primary batteries or conventional wireless power transferring methods in deep-tissue layers, human body energy harvesting is a promising alternative or complement for power supply. A high efficient power management in order to reduce the implanted device’s energy consumption is not only requested to effectively use the limited amounts of energy harvested but also contributes to extend implantation times and thus avoid invasive surgical procedures. This paper presents solution approaches for both software- and hardware-based low power management and storage options for active deep-tissue implants using hybrid energy storage systems and considering miniaturisation requirements of devices powered by energy harvesting.

Paper Nr: 39
Title:

RehabVisual: Implementation of a Low Cost Eye Tracker without Pre-calibration

Authors:

Pedro Dias, Ana Ferreira, Ricardo Vigário, Cláudia Quaresma and Carla Quintão

Abstract: Visual impairments affect the life of millions of people. Some of these impairments can be corrected or diminished. Visual stimulation is one way of visual rehabilitation, that has produced better results when used in the early years of life. As there is nothing standardized in this field, a platform named RehabVisual was developed (Machado et al., 2018; Santos, 2018). This platform has the objective of creating an individual visuomotor rehabilitation for children under two years old, that were born prematurely. In order to reach a therapists' need, a video analysis tool was developed. This tool should be capable of following the motion of the patients' eyes, with the purpose of facilitating and making the analysis of their reactions to the stimuli more objective. The solution developed on this paper consists on the creation of an eye tracker system, that does not need to be pre-calibrated and is low-cost. The eye tracker was tested in healthy individuals and the results show that is very effective in detecting horizontal eye variations.

Paper Nr: 41
Title:

Motor Rehabilitation and Biotelemetry Data Acquisition with Kinect

Authors:

Francisco A. Araújo, Paulo F. Viana Filho, Jesus A. Adad Filho, Nuno F. Ferreira, António Valente and Salviano P. Soares

Abstract: Accessibility and inclusiveness of people with disabilities is a recurring theme that is already perceived as an issue in the field of human rights. Ramps, elevators, among other devices aim at the inclusion of these individuals with limited mobility. Various types of motor limitations, specially partial limitations, are linked to corresponding physical-motor rehabilitation process, with the purpose of reducing or eliminating the patient’s dependence on a caregiver or devices for adaptation. Patients with motor disabilities must practice physio-therapeutical exercises along a physician in order to perform body and muscle analysis to ensure the patient’s well-being. To reach a more accurate analysis, physiotherapists use a range of devices to acquire patient data, such as the spirometer, to acquire the patient’s breath intensity and lung capacity. Similarly, there are other technologies capable of acquiring motion data and quantifying them. This work aims to develop a system that, paired together with an exercise game project (exergame), can acquire and transmit the motion data acquired in-game for an easier and faster analysis of the patient’s growth, relying on graphs, tables, and other visual indicators to improve the evaluation of physiotherapeutic treatments. The usage together with an exergame also has benefits such as increased patient compliance with the treatment and improvements in well-being.

Paper Nr: 45
Title:

3D Printing Materials for Physical Breast Phantoms: Monte Carlo Assessment and Experimental Validation

Authors:

R. M. Tucciariello, P. Barca, D. Caramella, R. Lamastra, A. Retico, A. Traino and M. E. Fantacci

Abstract: The aim of this work is to characterize 3D-printing materials to be used for breast physical phantoms in mammography and digital breast tomosynthesis QA procedures or research. Our approach involves both Monte Carlo (MC) calculations and experimental measurements. Using a GEANT4-based application, MC simulations are involved in order to compare transmission properties of the digital “standard breast”, which is composed by the external skin layer and the breast tissue inside, with those of typical printable materials. Substitute materials for skin layer and breast tissue have been identified and a 3D-printed physical breast phantom has been derived. Finally, a comparison between MC results and experimental measurements has been performed with the Hologic Selenia® Dimensions® mammography unit using XR-QA2 radiochromic films.

Paper Nr: 46
Title:

Rheoophthalmography Used for the Analysis of Blood Flow in the Posterior Part of the Eye

Authors:

P. V. Luzhnov, A. A. Kiseleva, E. N. Iomdina, L. V. Vasilenkova and O. A. Kiseleva

Abstract: The paper is aimed at developing a new rheoophthalmography (ROG) technique able to measure electrical impedance signals of patients with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG), which could facilitate early diagnostics of the disease and the differentiation of its stages. We used a technique of electrode positioning differing from the transpalpebral ROG technique used previously. Specifically, we changed the distance between the measuring electrodes and their location pattern: the axis of symmetry was rotated 90º relative to that used in the transpalpebral technique and located vertically rather than horizontally. This technique was applied to ROG signals of 32 patients (42 eyes) aged 67.7 years averagely. Of these, 6 patients (10 eyes) average aged 62.7 years had stage I (early) POAG or suspected POAG; 13 patients (17 eyes) average aged 69.4 years had stage II (developed) POAG; 10 patients (12 eyes) average aged 70.0 years had stage III (advanced) POAG; 3 patients (3 eyes) average aged 69.3 years had stage IV (terminal) POAG. The results of this study confirmed the feasibility of the above technique for ROG signal registration. The recorded signals are informative for quantitative assessment of blood flow in the posterior part of the eye, which enables early POAG diagnostics and differentiation between POAG stages.

Paper Nr: 47
Title:

Non-Invasive Blood Pressure Monitoring Based on Pulse Wave Recording with a New Three-channel Pneumatic Sensor

Authors:

V. E. Antsiperov, G. K. Mansurov, M. V. Danilychev and A. S. Bugaev

Abstract: The paper presents the design features and test results of a new non-invasive blood pressure monitoring sensor based on the local pressure compensation principle. Real-time differential processing of three-channel pulse wave data is used to determine and maintain the optimal position of the sensor on the patient’s body. The small size measuring unit with very small (1 mm2 or less) sensor pads, when placed accurately on elastic surfaces (for example, on the skin and underlying tissues), provides high-quality pulse wave recording, continuity of measurement and minimization of external interference. The paper also gives the results of measurement for some superficial arteries of the human body. Further development version of the sensor with synchronous ECG measurement is also presented.

Paper Nr: 49
Title:

A Tomographic Multiview-Multistatic Ultrasound System for Biomedical Imaging Applications

Authors:

S. Franceschini, M. Ambrosanio, F. Baselice and V. Pascazio

Abstract: Medical imaging is a paramount concern in modern society. Thus, there is an increasing interest and attention to new imaging modalities which can support standard exams and/or replace them in diseases diagnosis. In this framework, ultrasound tomography could have an important role for some biomedical applications, such as for breast cancer imaging, since it would allow to overcome some limitations related to standard ultrasound exams which are operator-dependent and usually are not based on a coherent processing, reducing the reconstruction performance considerably. To this aim, in this article a preliminary air-based ultrasound tomographic imaging system is described and tested. The prototype was designed, built and tested at the University of Naples Parthenope with the aim of providing some interesting data sets for testing and comparison of imaging algorithms in a laboratory-controlled environment, which represents a mandatory step before moving to the realistic case of a water-matched device.

Paper Nr: 50
Title:

Assessment of Computational Cell Model Benefits for Optimization of Microfluidic Devices

Authors:

Alžbeta Bohiniková, Inês Maia, Monika Smiešková, Alžbeta Bugáňová, Ana S. Moita, Ivan Cimrák and Rui A. Lima

Abstract: This article describes the overview of the steps required to derive and validate a new model on cell behaviour in microfluidic devices, from the experimental approach to the computational model. The paper identifies the challenges of the biological side of the experiments and shows where computational power can be useful. It also emphasizes the necessity for the collaboration between the experimental and computational research groups. Computations can offer great insides into the mechanics of cells, however, interesting applications mainly arise from combining nunerics with experiments. Well calibrated and verified model can be used to improve the performance of a given microfluidic device by testing various geometries and thus lowering the number of devices that need to be produced. Choosing several designs of microfluidic devices one tries to demonstrate the wide range of possible uses of the microfluidic technology and how the computations can enrich them.

Paper Nr: 57
Title:

Design of a Percutaneous Left Ventricular Assist Device

Authors:

Shivam Gupta, K. R. Balakrishnan and R. K. Kumar

Abstract: Percutaneous Left Ventricular Assist Device is used for short (1-2 weeks) of cardiac support and have strenuous design methodology as compared to conventional Left Ventricular Assist Device (LVAD). The aim of this study is (i) to design a micro-axial blood pump (ii) valídate the design using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and Systemic Mock Circulation Loop (SMCL), and (iii) flow visualization using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). The diameter of the impeller is 7.6 mm and length is 15 mm. One of the most important aspect of the design was the elimination of the bearing. The optimum parameters ascertained includes a wrap angle of 2500, blade thickness of 0.5 mm and shroud clearance of 0.25 mm. The straightener and diffusor were eliminated to reduce the net surface area exposed to blood. The pump characteristics were obtained using a Systemic Mock Circulation Loop (SMCL), developed in-house. The dynamic response was recorded by varying arterial compliance from 0.5 mL/mm Hg to 2 mL/mm Hg in SMCL. The design showed a consistent pump characteristics over a range of arterial compliance and an optimum flow rate of 2.5L/min at 60mm Hg, whereas the maximum flow rate of 2.8L/min at 80 mm Hg. The flow characteristics obtained using PIV were in good agreement with the CFD results.

Paper Nr: 58
Title:

Noninvasive Portal Pressure Estimation Model using Finite Element Analysis

Authors:

P. S. Kumar, A. K. Thittai and R. K. Kumar

Abstract: Currently, portal pressure is measured by the standard method known as hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG). But it is an invasive procedure; therefore, an alternative noninvasive technique to estimate portal pressure is required to monitor portal hypertension. In this work, a 3D portal vein model is developed to study the acoustic interaction with microbubbles in the portal vein. Ultrasound scattering by ultrasound contrast agent (UCA) is modelled and analyzed using finite element analysis in order to estimate portal pressure. It was found from the analysis that the subharmonic component dropped by 1.5 dB as the portal pressure raised from 0 mmHg to 10 mmHg. Over the same pressure range, the fundamental component reduced by only 0.2 dB. The results suggest that the subharmonic component from the nonlinear response of microbubble is strongly affected by the ambient pressure, and the proposed model may be used to estimate portal pressure noninvasively.

Paper Nr: 9
Title:

An Efficient Algorithm for Kinematics Estimation with Application to Dynamic Gait Stability using a Contact-less Skeleton Tracking System

Authors:

Michael Uelschen, Heinz-Josef Eikerling, Sabrina Rbib and Helge Riepenhof

Abstract: This paper presents an optimized algorithm for estimating static and dynamic gait parameters. We use a marker- and contact-less motion capture system that identifies 20 joints of a person walking along a corridor. Based on the proposed gait cycle detection basic metrics as walking frequency, step/stride length, and support phases are estimated automatically. Applying a rigid body model, we are capable to calculate static and dynamic gait stability metrics. We conclude with initial results of a clinical study evaluating orthopaedic technical support.

Paper Nr: 12
Title:

Analysis of the Relationship between Electrodermal Activity and Heart Rate with Pain in Individuals with a Shoulder Pathology

Authors:

M. Oliveira, C. Quintão, R. Vigário, B. Mendes, C. Caldeira, F. Rodrigues and C. Quaresma

Abstract: Currently, pain analysis in a clinical environment is not common and is at fault for being subjective and always dependent on a personal response. Therefore, it is imperative to use physiological signals to quantify pain and make diagnosis more objective. This article aims to study the relationship between pain, through its analog scale, with the electrodermal and cardiac signals of individuals characterized by having a shoulder pathology that gives rise to recurrent pain. This study was carried out on 21 patients from Hospital Curry Cabral, who were part of the Occupational Therapy department’s care in the area of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, and 18 individuals without any pathology, thus serving as a control group. All participants followed an experimental protocol consisting in the measurement of electrodermal and cardiac signals and pain level when performing two different movements. The results suggest that there is indeed a relationship between the two measured signals and pain. The greater the pain experienced by the individual, the greater the amplitude of the electrodermic signal and heart rate appears to be.

Paper Nr: 13
Title:

Comparison of Ex-vivo Perfused and Non-perfused Porcine Liver Ablations using Uncooled Microwave Applicators

Authors:

Mattia Dimitri, Fabio Staderini, Sara Aquino, Lucrezia Mazzantini, Andrea Corvi and Guido B. Gentili

Abstract: The paper compares thermal ablation on perfused and not perfused porcine liver produced by 17 and 14 Gauge non internally cooled (NIC) microwave (MW) applicators. To the knowledge of the authors this comparison, already made using cooled applicators has not so far been carried out with uncooled applicators that have a very different thermo-kinetic behavior when they operate inside a biological tissue. The purpose of this preliminary study is to explore the possibility of using ex vivo perfused liver in order to define an optimal protocol to allow more reliable translation of the experiments to the clinical practice and compare the obtained results with those of previous studies that used similar energy delivery.

Paper Nr: 14
Title:

An on-Chip Microfluidic Device for Production of Liposomes

Authors:

Relebohile G. Qhobosheane, Harish Ramachandramoorthy, Baibhav Bhattarai, Katherine Livingston, Tommy Nguyen, Kytai T. Nguyen and Wen Shen

Abstract: This work focuses on the development of a lab-on-chip microfluidic system that provides a mass and continuous production of unilamellar vesicle (LUV) liposomes encapsulated with drugs for biomedical and pharmacological applications. Liposomes are microscopic lipid encapsulations formed when lipid bilayers under specific conditions spontaneously form. They are useful because of their use as laboratory models, genetic delivery carriers, and drug delivery systems and can form unilamellar vesicles and multilamellar vesicles (MLV). Two devices were fabricated in this study, one using a 3D printed master mold while the other using a photolithography fabricated master mold. The device fabricated using photolithography had smoother channels compared to the 3D printed one and therefore was used to produce liposomes in this work. The devices had two aqueous inlets, an oil phase inlet and a separation hole. The device was fabricated using a molded piece of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) from a master mold and fused to a glass microscope slide. A syringe pump was used to push fluids through the device connected with tubing and syringes. The device was able to produce liposomes of 300 nm and with a low polydispersity index of less than 0.2, which is suitable for serving as drug carriers for anti-cancer therapies. The device will be further modified to produce targeted liposomes that could provide site-specific therapies.

Paper Nr: 18
Title:

Estimation of Gait Parameters based on Motion Sensor Data

Authors:

Kaitai Li and Cong-Cong Zhou

Abstract: Recently, the spreading application of intelligent mobile devices with integrated sensors such as inertial measurement units (IMU) has attracted the interest of the researchers for designing gait analysis methods based on the captured sensor data. This paper focuses on designing a system which can evaluate the walking ability and the physical agility level of normal people and people with Parkinson’s disease or stroke. The motion signal is collected by three wearable MPU9250 sensors located on both ankles and the center of the waist. Three test scenarios, including 10 meters walking test (10MWT), Time up and go test (TUGT) and Dual-task walking (DTW), are designed in this paper. The results, which concluded time parameters such as standing up time and turning back time as well as walking parameters such as stride length and stride frequency, showed good consistency and high accuracy with Vicon device.

Paper Nr: 19
Title:

A Macro View Model of a Bilirubin Monitoring System for Newborns

Authors:

Fernando Crivellaro, Ana I. Sousa, Maria Narciso, Rui Valente de Almeida, Anselmo Costa and Pedro Vieira

Abstract: All newborns are routinely monitored for the development of jaundice due to they biological immaturity to conjugate bilirubin. This situation is worrying because neonatal jaundice is a very common condition and high-levels of unconjugated bilirubin concentration have neurotoxic effects. Therefore, a continuous bilirubin monitoring system for newborns is being suggested to overcome visual inspection errors and to reduce invasive procedures. This system is presented through a macro view modeling approach, in order to validate the requirements and to build a base infrastructure to posteriorly progress in more detailed diagrams for development support. The Unified Modeling Language was used for diagrams composition and, thus, it was also developed a brief description about the different diagram types, in order to clarify the diagrams selection. The system modeling at early stages was considered a powerful engineering methodology for new designs due to its diffusion capacity of the system basic concepts for the respective interdisciplinary group involved in this research.

Paper Nr: 20
Title:

Configurable External Defibrillator Devoted to Education and Clinical Trials

Authors:

Victor N. Santos, J. C. Santos and N. F. Ferreira

Abstract: External defibrillators are recognized effective to revert ventricular fibrillation and pulseless ventricular tachycardia. This paper presents a new settable defibrillator, designed to assess the effectiveness of the following defibrillation waveforms during clinical trials: monophasic damped sinusoidal (MDS); biphasic truncated exponential (BTE) and rectilinear biphasic waveform (RBW). The device flexibility allows the setting of the defibrillation waveforms most relevant parameters, namely energy and pulses duration. The device usage is also relevant in biomedical engineer and medical staff education and training programs.

Paper Nr: 21
Title:

Classification of Five Finger Movement, based on a Low-cost, Real-time EMG System

Authors:

Clive Seguna, Adrian Von Brockdorff, Jeremy Scerri and Kris Scicluna

Abstract: Researchers commonly use myoelectric signals to study the electrical activity produced by skeletal muscles for the control of prosthetic arms, hands and limb replacement devices. Additionally, to the application in prostheses, a myoelectric control system for multiple finger movements has the potential to develop commercial products including advanced human-computer interfaces. The objective of this work is to implement a set of low-cost active electrodes for the decoding of finger movement via time-domain analysis, with an auto-gain adjustment technique. Different people will have different EMG amplitudes; therefore, it is difficult to determine the gain required prior performing further signal processing. In this work, an auto-adjustable gain amplifier circuit processes the maximum EMG signal amplitude and adjusts the gain stage accordingly, without the need of any user interaction. This ensures that the gain is always automatically adjusted to get the most effective performance from the data acquisition or analogue to digital converter (ADC) module since the signal will be neither too low in amplitude to cause inefficient use of the ADC resolution, nor too high to cause saturation of the signal. Through extensive experiments, the developed low-cost EMG data acquisition system achieves reproducible and repeatable results for the detection and classification of the five finger movements.

Paper Nr: 26
Title:

A Real Framework to Apply Collaborative Robots in Upper Limb Rehabilitation

Authors:

Lucas A. Fernandes, Thadeu Brito, Luis Piardi, José Lima and Paulo Leitão

Abstract: Rehabilitation is an important recovery process from dysfunctions that improves the patient’s activities of daily living. On the other hand, collaborative robotic applications, where humans and machines can share the same space, are increasing once it allows splitting a task between the accuracy of a robot and the ability and flexibility of a human. This paper describes an innovative approach that uses a collaborative robot to support the rehabilitation of the upper limb of patients, complemented by an intelligent system that learns and adapts its behaviour according to the patient’s performance during the therapy. This intelligent system implements the reinforcement learning algorithm, which makes the system robust and independent of the path of motion. The validation of the proposed approach uses a UR3 collaborative robot training in a real environment. The main control is the resistance force that the robot is able to do against the movement performed by the human arm.

Paper Nr: 28
Title:

A Smart Healthcare: Methods based on WBAN and Multi-engine Artificial Intelligence

Authors:

Nourhene Ellouze and Noureddine Boudriga

Abstract: Healthcare systems are promising solutions to improve medical services offered to patients suffering from chronic illness. The majority of the healthcare systems proposed in the literature are built to monitor and treat a single type of disease. In this paper, we propose an architecture of a Smart Healthcare System carried by a Wireless Body Area Network to supervise multiple diseases and promote the diagnosis and reactions to occurred health anomalies. We also implement a multi-engine artificial intelligence allowing the correlation between the different occurred anomalies related to multiple diseases. Forward and backward reasoning were also integrated to handle the early detection of anomalies and the provision of medical explanations of occurred health situations, respectively. A case study exemplifying our proposal were also detailed.

Paper Nr: 29
Title:

An Innovative Approach towards Incorporating the End User to the NMES Wearable System Development

Authors:

Anelise Ventura, João P. Bataglia, Leonardo R. Machado, Jorge V. Lopes da Silva, Renato Varoto and Alberto Cliquet Jr.

Abstract: This work presents a portable and customized wearable system design towards applying Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation (NMES) to tetraplegicsúpper limbs patients, from creation to production, with users’ participation into the design process. The rehabilitation system protocol for reach and grasp movements developed by an academic research group, currently applied to patients, has already proven to be effective. However, the current system and recently published researches, demonstrate proposals distancing from those who will use and manipulate it, with limitations and failures evidenced. The propose wearable system integrates electrodes and electronic components activated by a smartphone app to improve the performance of upper limb movements and optimize the system, making it more functional for your users. The methodology includes (1) Design Thinking process, (2) Parametric Design process and three dimensional production, (3) Reduction of the electronic circuits, (4) Development of Android application for setting NMES protocols and (5) Workbench tests and users experimentation. The methodology in this new approach of development proved to be feasible and effective. Results have shown that including the end users and health professionals in the design process to develop wearable system is a promising strategy to overcome the limitations of the NMES systems.

Paper Nr: 32
Title:

Are Sensors and Data Processing Paving the Way to Completely Non-invasive and Not-painful Medical Tests for Widespread Screening and Diagnosis Purposes?

Authors:

Giovanni Saggio

Abstract: Effective medical tests are essential in supporting correct clinical decisions by medical doctors. But, have medical tests to be necessarily invasive and painful to be effective? During last decades, new developments of sensors and improvements of data analysis algorithms seem to paying the way to a (more or less near) future with completely non-invasive and not painful medical tests. This work aims to furnish a survey on what is going on within this frame, with an eye to new possibilities.

Paper Nr: 34
Title:

Development of a Virtual Reality Environment for Rehabilitation of Tetraplegics

Authors:

Gabriel A. Ginja, Renato Varoto and Alberto Cliquet Jr.

Abstract: Treatments based on Virtual Reality have been successfully used in motor rehabilitation of issues such as Spinal Cord Injury and Stroke. Highly immersive Virtual environments combined with biofeedback can be utilized to train functional activities on patients with these motor disabilities. This work details the development of a portable Virtual Reality environment to train upper limbs activities on Spinal Cord Injury subjects. The Virtual Reality environment depicts a personalized physiotherapy room where the user trains elbow and shoulder by reaching 5 spots on table. Also the user have a biofeedback of both hands’ position. Finally this system will be integrated a pilot biomechanical analysis using The Motion Monitor system to compare a group of patients before and after a 6 week intervention with Virtual Reality.

Paper Nr: 44
Title:

Preventing Spin Relaxation of Optically Pumped Alkali Metal Atoms in Magnetometer by Atomically Thin Film Coating

Authors:

H. Kumagai, R. Yoshimitsu, S. Takeda, E. Ogawa, T. Kosuge, H. Ishikawa, T. Sato and M. Suzuki

Abstract: We developed molecular layer deposition method of atomically thin hybrid polymer film for the first time by developing atomic layer deposition method with sequential surface chemical reactions in order to minimize the effect of the dipole-dipole interaction between the electron spin of alkali metal atoms and the nuclear spin of the atoms in the glass of the cell. We controlled film thickness of polymer thin film precisely and finally aimed at improving the sensitivity of the optically pumped atomic magnetometer. In the presentation, we report on the relaxation time of spin polarization by atomically thin hybrid polymer film with laser pump-probe method.

Paper Nr: 51
Title:

Research of Motion Artefacts in Eye Blood Filling Diagnostics by Photoplethysmographic Methods

Authors:

Y. S. Kadochkin, P. V. Luzhnov and E. N. Iomdina

Abstract: The analysis of the blood filling process is necessary to study the physiological characteristics of the blood circulation of the eye in normal and pathological conditions. In this paper, we studied the possibility of constructing a photoplethysmographic (PPG) diagnostic channel for assessing the hemodynamic characteristics of an eye and an eyelid. The main objective of this paper is to study the possibility of using PPG together with other diagnostic channels, as well as the study of motion artefacts when the PPG sensor is installed on the upper eyelid. The research group consisted of 6 volunteers without ophthalmologic disease. The red and infrared emission ranges for the PPG sensor were selected. Registration of PPG signals consisted of the following: PPG measurement in red and infrared light in the presence of artefacts in the horizontal plane, in the resting state, in the presence of artefacts in the vertical plane. It is shown that the infrared PPG channel has a greater signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for both vertical and horizontal motion artefacts of the eye. As a result of this work, studies have shown that the infrared PPG signal is less affected by eye motion artefacts than red PPG. Moreover, the recorded signals in the conditions of vertical eyes movements have a lower SNR than in the conditions of horizontal eyes movements. The method of video PPG has shown better value of SNR by the diagnostics in the eyelid.

Paper Nr: 56
Title:

Use of Convolutional Neural Networks for Detection and Segmentation of Pulmonary Nodules in Computed Tomography Images

Authors:

A. A. Saraiva, Luciano Lopes, Pimentel Pedro, Jose M. Sousa, N. F. Ferreira, J. B. Neto, Salviano Soares and Antonio Valente

Abstract: This paper presents a method capable of detecting and segmenting pulmonary nodules in clinical computed tomography images, using UNet convolutional neural network powered by The Lung Image Database Consortium image collection - LIDC-IDRI, that in the training process was submitted to different training tests, where for each of them, their hyper-parameters were modified so that the results could be collected from different media, getting quite satisfactory results in the segmentation task, highlighting the areas of interest almost perfectly, resulting in 91.61% on the IoU (Intersection over Union) metric.